The Arrival Of Fall Armyworm
The emergence of yet another exotic plant pest on our shores highlights the importance of having a strong, reliable plant protection and biosecurity program that protects our production nursery industry. This Nursery Paper will inform nurseries of the pest (Fall armyworm), host list, biology and will also highlight some of the procedures that will help businesses effectively manage this pest.
Benchmarking For Success
Making the marketing levy work for you
Marketing is an incredibly important function of any business. The nursery industry’s marketing levy enables an investment in a marketing program that raises awareness of the importance of green space amongst consumers, business and government, as well as generate demand for greenlife throughout the value chain.
Creating Personalised Management Plans for Key Nursery Pests
Management of pests will always play a significant role in the production of nursery stock. This Nursery Paper will assist production managers to develop a personalised plan to deal with the most significant pests relevant to their business.
Specifying Tree stock for success
Growing high-quality tree stock provides greater certainty to customers that trees are fit for purpose and will have a successful life in the landscape. This Nursery Paper looks at the new guide for growing high-quality trees, the Tree Stock Specifications Appendix, available in the latest NIASA manual.
Mastering the art of gross margins in production nurseries
Financial analysis allows growers to look inside the workings of their business and improve decision-making. Courses such as the Masterclass of Horticultural Business are a stepping-stone to build financial literacy and gain exposure across all parts of a business plan.
Global review and gap analysis of nursery industry research anddevelopment initiatives
A new global review conducted by RM Consulting Group (RMCG) has unearthed leading RD&E from around the world, highlighting the opportunities for Australia’s nursery industry to learn from what is currently occurring in other countries and adopt practices and technology to our conditions and systems.
Neonicotinoid Insecticides - no replacements but there are alternatives
Neonicotinoid (Neonic) insecticides have been an important chemical tool to manage pests in Australian production nurseries for more than twenty years, with imidacloprid (e.g. CONFIDOR) the most recognised neonic used in horticulture.
Nursery Industry Career Path Development Strategy
The nursery industry faces challenges with attracting and retaining staff, and providing opportunities for professional development. The industry’s high staff turnover rate and perceived limited career pathways, make it difficult to source qualified entrants and retain existing ones.
Roadshow unveils new Tree Stock Standard
In this Nursery Paper, we revisit the research findings that led to a broader, more applicable tree standard, as well as the national roadshow, which brought together 450 growers and landscape professionals to learn about the updated criteria.
The Importance Of Correct Pest And Disease Identification In Nursery Production
Review and maintenance of irrigation
Water and irrigation is a critical part of any production nursery. Well-designed irrigation ensures that water is applied evenly and efficiently across a nursery’s production areas, from propagation through to stock for sale.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Good For People, Plants And Profit
Although many of the underlying principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) have been practiced for millennia, the formalisation of the IPM concept began in the 1950’s in response to the negative impacts of broadscale pesticide use.
Back to Basics: Water Management
In this nursery paper, we explore efficient water use including irrigation techniques to minimise wastage through the NIASA best practice program. We also profile nurseries committed to effective water management, which is boosting plant quality and positioning the industry as responsible water users.
Effective use of sticky traps
Sticky traps are a valuable aid in monitoring crops to detect early pest infestations, or to demonstrate a property is free of certain flying insects. The traps record and highlight the activities of these pests and, over time, will show population trends and guide the direction for future pest management.
Rust diseases and their management in production nurseries.Rusts can be very damaging to a large number of plants grown by the production nursery industry and are sometimes difficult to manage. Rusts are highly specialised, obligate parasites of plants that obtain their nutrients from living plant cells; they cannot gain nutrients from dead plant material. Rusts may parasitise one species of a plant during their life cycle or may sometimes attack two unrelated species. They have complicated lifecycles, producing up to five different types of spores that serve different functions. Rusts are generally quite host-specific, attacking only a small number of closely related plant species, but exceptions occur. Successful management of rust diseases generally involves a range of integrated approaches including cultural practices and pesticides during high risk periods.
New data provides tools for the future
A unique project seeking to quantify the value of the nursery industry’s contribution to the Australian economy has delivered statistics and a new data tool to help the industry better plan for the future. The Nursery Industry Statistics and Research 2016/17 (NY16004) project has, for the first time, shown that Australia’s thriving nursery and garden businesses produced an estimated $2.29 billion worth of green life in 2015-16.
The project surveyed more than 200 production nurseries and revealed that there are 23,000 people across the nation working in approximately 1,777 nursery and garden businesses. The project also produced a user friendly data tool to enable nursery operators to benchmark themselves against other businesses, so as to help them to boost their own profitability.
Where should all the trees go?
The nursery industry has a goal of 20 per cent tree canopy cover for Australia’s urban environments by 2020. To help achieve this, being able to measure the amount of canopy cover that currently exists and the best ways to manage and increase it is an important tool. The 2014 report Where are all the trees? created Australia’s first national baseline measurement of tree canopy cover in 139 local government areas (LGAs). This Nursery Paper explores a follow-up project Where should all the trees go? Investigating the impact of tree canopy cover on socioeconomic status and wellbeing in LGA’s (NY16005), which aimed to correlate the amount of tree cover with social, economic and health outcomes for urban residents.
Greening our cities for the future
Australia’s dynamic nursery and turf industries are joining forces with a range of public and private institutions in cutting edge research to help build the case for more green space in our communities and our cities.The Green Cities Fund forms one of the seven components of the Hort Frontiers strategic partnership initiative, which was developed by Hort Innovation to future-proof and advance Australia’s $11.3 billion horticulture sector
Nursery Supply Chains and Logistics
Australia’s nursery and garden supply chain is diverse and multi-faceted. Moving green life from production to consumption may seemstraight forward, but growers are faced with a range of logistical challenges, compounded by rising transportation costs.
Endophytes and latent pathogens - Implications for the Nursery Industry
Endophytes are fungi that reside in living plant tissue for all or part of their life cycle, without causing any apparent or detectable symptoms of disease.
Although generally benign, some have the ability to develop into aggressive pathogens and cause a range of symptoms including dieback, cankers or fruit rots, when trees or plants are stressed. These types of endophytes are usually referred to as latent pathogens.
Endophytic latent pathogens are an important biosecurity concern, since they can be moved undetected in plant material and once introduced into a new area, may move onto other hosts and cause disease epidemics.
In this Nursery Paper we examine endophytes in more detail and consider their potential future impact on the industry.
Xylella Fastidiosa: One of the world's most feared plant pathogens
The bacteria Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen of significant concern worldwide and would rank as one of Australia’s most feared plant pathogens. In recent years it has infested crops from America to Europe and its spread is likely to continue.Many landscape species such as elms, maples, oaks and oleander are affected, along with important cropping plants including citrus, grapes, olives, almond, peach and coffee. Other hosts include avocado, blueberry, plum, pecan, sour cherry, rosemary and blackberry. In this month's Nursery Paper the team from the National Nursery Industry Biosecurity Program will explore X. fastidiosa in depth and examine some of the current outbreaks around the world.
Which Plant Where?
A key challenge for greening Australia’s urban environments is to ensure that plantings are made with trees, shrubs and turf that will survive and thrive for many decades to come.
This Nursery Paper outlines the aims of a five-year research project which brings together a consortium of research and industry partners to investigate the suitability of various plant species under current and future climate scenarios and in various urban areas, from street plantings to housing developments and open spaces.
Testing the tree stock standard
The Australian standard for producing quality landscape trees ensures a nationally consistent benchmark for quality tree stock for landscape use. A component of the current standard focusing on root to shoot balance criteria can be influenced by the climate trees are grown in, the species of tree, the treatment they receive in the nursery, and regional differences in their performance. In 2016-2017, researchers assessed 13,820 trees in 23 wholesale nurseries to see how well Australian Standard 2303:2015 Tree Stock for Landscape Use applies to trees of different species and climates in nurseries across the country, with specific emphasis on tree stock
balance and size index equations. This Nursery Paper looks at the findings of their research and their
recommendation that the current standard is modified.
Education and Training; Vital for aThriving IndustryHorticulture is a rapidly expanding industry in Australia, with an increase in the value of both the production and lifestyle sectors. This means there has never been a more important time for horticulture, and the nursery industry, to continually improve the skills and knowledge of owners, managers and staff to ensure businesses remain strong and profitable in a changing world. The industry is investing significant amounts in overcoming some of the barriers it faces, and this Nursery Paper addresses both the challenges and opportunities available.
National Nursery Industry Biosecurity Program
The National Nursery Industry Biosecurity program (NY15004) is a comprehensive levy funded project which aims to ensure that production nurseries in Australia have access to an on-farm biosecurity program (BioSecure HACCP). It also ensures that production nurseries are aware of and prepared for incursions of exotic plant pests and have effective market access mechanisms in place to maintain business functionality. The program has seen a number of activities completed and this Nursery Paper will highlight some of the work being done in these areas.
Data, the key to a national industry voice
Collecting data about nursery production is challenging, due largely to the diversity of the industry and the number of times plants can be sold before reaching the end user. Whether you are a business operating in the nursery and garden industry in Australia, a key stakeholder representing industry interests or a commercial enterprise looking to engage with businesses in the industry, the lack of accurate data makes it difficult to plan for the future. This Nursery Paper looks at why the nursery and garden industry should embrace the capture and sharing of information. Through commentary from a leading industry grower, it examines how the benefits of industry data for individual businesses can outweigh concerns around sharing information. A new project addressing industry data needs is underway. The consortium of Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA), ACIL Allen Consulting and Down to Earth Research is on a mission to collect statistics accurately and in enough detail to track industry performance over time, assess market trends, and prioritise spending for the future.
Nursery Industry Water Management Best Practice Guidelines
Water use is a major issue for the nursery industry. Environmental concerns, climate variability, water shortages and increased water costs continue to put pressure on growers to address water use efficiency. For many nursery managers, the question is how to optimise production while reducing water use, in a cost effective way. This Nursery Paper recaps some of the available research on water use efficiency to help growers make the best production decisions for their businesses.
Green roofs improve worker productivity
Having a room with a view really does make a difference— even when you are at work or studying. This nursery paper outlines the psychological benefits of vegetation growing on city building roofs, on those working in nearby buildings. Dr Kate Lee’s research investigated the type of roof-top vegetation that workers preferred as well as the effect of green microbreaks on concentration, mood, and overall work performance.
Minor Use Permit Pesticide Program
The Minor Use Permit (MUP) Pesticide program allows for pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc), that do not have a legally approved label registration, to be applied in a nonregistered cropping system under an authorised APVMA permit. In this Nursery Paper, National Biosecurity Manager John McDonald explains how managing the National MUP Pesticide program delivers new chemistry to support on-farm plant protection management activities.
GETTING TO THE ROOT OF TREE PLANTING
The success of tree planting starts at the beginning of a tree’s life and the eventual impact of nursery production decisions may not be seen immediately. The nursery industry is on a journey to refine a standard for landscape trees, ensuring they thrive for centuries in a greener Australia. This began in April 2015 with the introduction of the Australian standard for tree stock for landscape use (AS 2303:2015). Research is currently underway by the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment to evaluate this standard and assess the real-world performance of nursery trees grown for landscaping purposes.
BAITING FOR PHYTOPHTHORA AND PYTHIUM IN PRODUCTION NURSERIES
The production and sale of healthy nursery stock is essential, as production nurseries are the very heart of our ornamental, vegetable, fruit and forestry industries. To manage plant diseases effectively, nursery managers can monitor for specific, high-risk pathogens using baiting techniques. This paper can be used as a guide to conduct different baiting techniques for Phytophthora. These methods extend normal crop monitoring, can be implemented easily by nursery managers and assist in resolving urgent disease problems. This nursery paper has been produced by Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries pathologists as part of a nursery levy funded project.
GREENING THE GOODS LINE
Once an old railway corridor in inner Sydney, the Goods Line has been redeveloped into a vibrant hub and green space transforming the way local office workers, students and tourists use the urban precinct.
This Nursery Paper looks at some of the social and environmental changes that have occurred at the Goods Line since its redevelopment in 2015. Research undertaken by the UTS Institute for Sustainable Futures evaluates the type and scale of changes emerging from urban renewal projects and the importance of green space in big cities.
Meeting the needs of modern biosecurity legislation
BioSecure HACCP is the Nursery Industry’s best practice biosecurity program for production nurseries. A lot has changed since 2008, when BioSecure HACCP Guidelines were first made available to growers, including changes to the way that government deals with biosecurity. In this Nursery Paper, NGIA’s National Biosecurity Manager John McDonald and NGIA Technical Assistant Grant Telford talk about recent changes to biosecurity legislation, and how BioSecure HACCP is well positioned to assist growers in meeting modern biosecurity related legislative requirements.
Synthetic vs Natural Growth promoting hormones
The nursery industry has been using synthetic auxins such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to assist in the development of adventitious roots on plant cuttings for many decades. This Nursery Paper provides an overview of research by Masters student Apriwi Zulfitri to determine if inoculation of plant cuttings with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may be a cost-effective alternative to using synthetic auxins in the propagation of ornamental plants.
Removing barriers to urban greening
Across Australia, there is core-level support for the principles of urban greening in our large towns and cities. However, legislative and policy barriers exist at all levels of government that need to be overcome before widespread adoption can occur at the rate required to achieve the 202020 Vision goals. This Nursery Paper summarises a report by Josh Byrne & Associates detailing the existing barriers and the recommended actions that can enable planners to implement more green space in urban developments.
The value of a leafy neighbourhood
People like living in leafy suburbs, and an avenue of a single tree species has a special appeal—but what value do homebuyers place on having trees along the street and how does the size, age, health and diversity of the trees influence their purchasing decisions? These were the questions that University of Queensland researcher Lyndal Plant set out to answer. Ms Plant’s research has quantified the additional value that homebuyers place on the quantity and type of trees in the streetscape.
What to Expect from Current R & D Projects
The end of 2015 marked the beginning of a swag of new research and development (R&D) projects that benefit and support the nursery industry. In this Nursery Paper we will take a look at how R&D priorities are set, what the current projects aim to deliver and how anyone can put forward new ideas for funding to investigate critical issues affecting the industry.
Tree stock for landscape use
After many years of discussion, debate and development, AS2303:2015 Australian Standard Tree stock for landscape use was introduced in April 2015. This paper will cover the need for a standard, some of the background in developing the standard, some of the key aspects of the standard and future developments for the standard.
The use of gas in nursery management
The various types of environments encountered within the nursery sector vary greatly from full sun outdoor to climatically controlled indoor environments. Subsequently the need to control all types of factors within the range of applications will also vary. Gasses in various forms have been used for many years to control, treat and fumigate all types of problems occurring. This paper is aimed at updating knowledge within the industry and perhaps opening aspects of control that have been over looked for many years and due to new pest and insect incursions.
Plant photosynthetic growth and photomorphogenesis under LED light
The importance of the greenhouse environment to the successful growing and merchandising of plants
Plants have optimum requirements for successful growth and development and minimizing the environment for pest and diseases. The goal of growers and plant managers should be to improve production and the health of the plants for long term success. To achieve this, a multitude knowledge and management skills are required to fulfil markets and the consumer expectations for healthy plants. Ultimately, optimal management of the total environment can equate to long terms profits and customer satisfaction for potential repeat business. In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer, Michael Danelon seeks to raise awareness of the importance of identifying and managing your greenhouse environment to the successful production and merchandising of plants and minimising the environment for plant pest and disease.
Waste management and disposal in the nursery industry
Waste management and disposal have always been a part of business processes for Australian production nurseries. In recent times, the types of waste have changed and disposal costs have continued to increase. A greater use of product packaging has led to an increase in the amount of plastic and cardboard requiring disposal. The increasing cost to process these surplus resources, in addition to a community preference for resource recovery instead of landfill disposal, has led production nurseries to consider new ways to reduce waste management costs while also embracing environmental sustainability.
Efficacy of Organic Amendments Used in Plant Production
Design Issues and Beneficial Outcomes from Greening a Childcare OutdoorSpace for Babies and Toddlers.
Street tree diversity and canopy quality influences urban microclimate andpedestrian thermal comfort.
Barcodes – Beyond compliance
American Study Tour 5-16 July 2014
Indoor Heat Stress Mitigation with Urban Vegetation and Tree Shading
A Systems Approach to Managing Pests, Diseases & Weeds BioSecure HACCP
Growing Media Storage
The Importance of Suitable Sources of Irrigation Water to Nursery Businesses
Poor quality water can have potential impacts to plant health and product quality when used in the production, maintenance and detailing of plants for sale. A source of high quality irrigation water at an affordable price is critical to the successful production and maintenance of plants. Consideration should be given not only of the irrigation water applied directly to the plants, but also to the overall production and irrigation systems in place. In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer, Michael Danelon seeks to raise awareness of the importance of identifying your water source and managing irrigation water, along with covering some simple testing parameters and information resources.
Pesticide Application on Edibles
Pesticides are an essential tool in the control of pests in nursery production. However special consideration should be given to the use of pesticides on edible crops especially those with potential to be readily eaten. In this month’s Nursery Paper Grant Dalwood (NGISA) and Chris O’Connor (NGIA) remind industry of some of the key considerations when it comes to pesticide application in edible crops.
Pruning & Staking- Back to Basics
In light of the recent work being conducted to draft an Australian standard for tree stock, there has been renewed focus throughout the industry on tree quality. In this month’s Nursery Paper NGINA IDO for the Northern Rivers Des Boorman will undertake a back to basics review of the importance, use and techniques of root control, pruning and staking stock for consistent quality production.
Accurately diagnosing weeds, pests and diseases affecting nursery crops.
Accurately diagnosing weeds, pests and diseases affecting nursery crops can be challenging. If left unchecked these pests can increase costs and reduce productivity. Therefore it is important to take action early to prevent widespread infestations through correct diagnostics.
This months nursery paper was prepared by Andrew Manners* (Senior Entomologist and manager of Grow Help Australia DAFFQ) and John Duff* (Senior Plant Protectionist DAFFQ) as part of the levy funded project ‘NY11001 Plant health, biosecurity, risk management and capacity building for the nursery industry.
Valuing the urban forest in Sydney
Any grower can tell you the price of a tree but how many can tell you the value that trees offer to the community? The objective of the project “Understanding the carbon and pollution mitigation potential of Australia's urban forest” was to test and improve methodologies for evaluating the ecological and social value of the urban forest. In this months nursery paper, Dr Marco Amati of La Trobe University explains how this was done along two major highways in Sydney.
Managing Chemicals of Security Concern Across the Nursery & Garden Industry Supply Chain
The Council of Australian Governments has identified 11 chemicals that are considered high-risk because they can be used to make homemade explosives. Australian governments in partnership with industries have developed a voluntary National Code of Practice for Chemicals of Security Concern to provide information and guidance on minimising the risk of these chemicals falling into the wrong hands.
In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGIA Research & Market Development Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of the voluntary code as well as existing industry resources to manage chemicals of security concern across the nursery & garden industry supply chain.
Certified Budwood Schemes – helping to protect: you, your business, industry, environment and the community.
The ability of the nursery industry to secure “high-health” plant propagation material does exist for some commodities via certification and improvement schemes. However, material is not available for all types of material needed by plant industries In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon looks at some of the options available to the industry to secure plant propagation material with the purity, authenticity and reliability to perform and enhance both the industry and environment.
Automating Irrigation Scheduling in Nursery Production
Traditionally irrigation scheduling in production nurseries has been determined by past experience (gut feel) and the setting of specific run times depending on the season. Other common methods employed include manual moisture assessment of individual containers, daily evaporation measurements or using a weight method to determine a container’s water holding capacity.
In this month’s Nursery Paper Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald and Research Scientist David Hunt describe the water use efficiency and cost savings achieved through the automation of irrigation scheduling.
Bridging the Ebusiness Technology Gap in the NSW Nursery and Garden Industry
In this month’s Nursery Paper NGINA Business Skills Development Officer, Bob Wynyard reports on recent work undertaken in developing E business solutions and training in the Nursery Industry. (August 2008, issue 8)
Managing iron in nursery irrigation systems
Having a source of good quality water is vital to any professional nursery operation. In this month’s Nursery Paper, Victorian Industry Development Officer David Reid examines iron content in nursery irrigation systems, covering why it may be of concern and how best to manage it.
Management of fungus gnats in nursery production
This months nursery paper was prepared by Dr. Andrew Manners Senior Entomologist at the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and examines the managment of Fungus Gnats in Nursery production. Fungus gnats are a common problem in production nurseries and propagation greenhouses and can cause significant damage, economic loss and the spread of fungal diseases. To manage fungus gnats, careful and deliberate planning is required.
Emerging Biosecurity threats and industry preparedness.
Biosecurity is an ongoing challenge for our Industry with new exotic plant pests and diseases emerging around the globe. In this month’s Nursery Paper NSW Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon looks at some of these emerging threats to Australia and how our industry is positioned to deal with these.
Urban Vegetation and Heat Related Mortality
In this month’s Nursery Paper, Dr Dong Chen and the team from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) look at urban vegetation and its impact upon heat related mortality. This research represents one of the first attempts to develop quantitative estimates of the potential benefit of urban vegetation in reducing heat related mortality.The project involved modelling of vegetation and mortality relationships for the summer of 2009 and projected future climates in Melbourne. Different urban vegetation scenarios were tested, with the forest scheme predicted to achieve up to 100% reduction in excess mortality rate in comparison with the CBD vegetation scheme. From these results it is recommended that urban vegetation be a key component in heat wave mitigation and for preventative health.
Crisis Management in the Australian Nursery Industry
There are a number of issues which have the potential to escalate into a crisis and cause serious adverse commercial and reputational impact to the Australian nursery and garden industry, both at an individual business level and at a state or national organisation level. As an industry we must take the opportunity to be prepared to address these issues before they arise. In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Policy and Technical Officer Chris O’Connor explains what a crisis is in the nursery industry, the importance of crisis management, steps to take during a crisis and where to turn to if you need help with a crisis.
Survey of Nursery Industry Attitudes towards the Australian Urban Forest
In order to better understand the attitudes of the Australian nursery and garden industry (NGI)
in relation to urban forests, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) undertook a Survey
of Nursery Industry Attitudes towards the Australian Urban Forest. The survey was conducted
online via Survey Monkey during September and October 2012 and targeted the retail,
production and allied sectors of the Australian NGI. In this month’s Nursery Paper,
NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko reports on
the key results and recommendations of this survey.
Minor Use Pesticide Program
The Minor Use Pesticide program allows for pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc.), that do not have a legally approved label registration, to be used in a non-registered cropping system under an authorised APVMA permit. In this months Nursery Paper, Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald explains how managing the National Minor Use Pesticide Portfolio delivers new chemistry to support on-farm plant protection management activities.
Fungicides are often used as a critical part of an integrated pathogen control strategy as pathogenic fungi have the ability to significantly reduce the yield and quality of plant stock if left untreated. However with incorrect management there is potential for fungicide resistance to develop. In this month's Nursery Paper Industry Development Officer David Reid investigates fungicide resistance and explores suitable methods for controlling this.
Reducing the Pest Risk – Industry’s Policy Position on Biosecurity and Quarantine
Nursery and Garden Industry Australia launched ‘Reducing the Pest Risk – The Australian Nursery and Garden Industry's Policy Position on Quarantine and Biosecurity’ at its National Conference on Thursday 15 March 2012. The Policy Position paves the way for industry to ensure biosecurity responsibilities are shared equally between governments, industry and the community as part of the biosecurity continuum.
In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of this Policy Position and what it means for industry.
Cylindrocladium diseases of nursery plants
Various species of the fungus Cylindrocladium cause a wide range of destructive diseases in nursery plants and are particularly prevalent in more tropical areas. Cylindrocladium scoparium occurs worldwide, and is the most commonly reported causal agent of Cylindrocladium diseases in Australia, although a number of other species are also important pathogens including Cylindrocladium spathiphylli.
This nursery paper was prepared by Lindy Coates, Leif Forsberg and Tony Cooke (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Queensland) as part of levy funded project NY11001 Plant health, biosecurity, risk management and capacity building for the nursery industry. It provides an overview of the fungus Cylindrocladium and how to prevent and control this disease of nursery plants.
How to Minimise the Effects of Carbon Pricing on Nursery Production Systems
On July 1 2012, the new carbon price policy – Clean Energy Future – was introduced by the Australian Government. While the nursery industry will not be directly involved in the carbon price mechanism, it is expected that the carbon price will result in cost increases for key agricultural inputs with the most significant costs relating to energy and energy intensive inputs such as fertilisers, chemicals and machinery .
In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of strategies that can be applied within production systems to minimise the impact of the carbon price policy .
A pest concern for Production Nurseries that reinforces the need for IPM in your business
Over the past few years many new varieties of plant species have been developed and sold widely within the nursery industry of Australia.
Subsequently, as plant stocks increase within production nurseries and variations in local climatic conditions have their effect on insects and pests in and around crops, different issues are raised regarding identification and treatment of unusual pest problems that generally do not require treatment!
In this months Nursery Paper IDO Grant Dalwood looks at the impacts of Midge Flies on the nursery industry and suitable methods for their control.
Mitigating Extreme Summer Temperatures with Vegetation
Recently, Dr Dong Chen and the team from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and NGIA modelled the potential benefit of vegetation in reducing extreme summer temperatures in Melbourne CBD under different climate scenarios. Results showed that the cooling benefit of various urban forms and vegetation schemes may be in the range of 0.3°C to 2°C. The team also found that although Melbourne is projected to be warmer in 2050 and 2090, the relative benefit of urban vegetation will not change significantly. In this Nursery Paper, Dr Dong Chen details the rationale to this research and the results to date.
Do herbicides applied in production nurseries have thepotential to leach and accumulate in water storages?
The use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) are an integralpart of containerised plant production. They are used to assist nurserymanagers in maintaining a clean, healthy growing environment, whilereducing labour to manage pests and weeds. In this Nursery Paper, NGINAIndustry Development Officer Michael Danelon summarises the findings of aresearch project looking into “Herbicide residues in nursery dam water: A pilotmonitoring program report” conducted by the Department of Employment,Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) Queensland.
The Nursery Production Plant Health & Biosecurity Project
The Nursery Production Plant Health & Biosecurity Project covers a number of disciplines including research, industry development and extension in partnership with Agri-Science Queensland. The project is aimed at enhancing and strengthening the capacity of industry to plan, manage and respond to plant pest issues across Australia at both a farm and strategic national level. In this Nursery Paper, NGIQ Industry Development Manager John McDonald, provides a summary of this significant industry levy funded project.
Taking our strategy to the next phase - More Trees Please to Improve your Plant/Life Balance.
In 2011 the Australian nursery & garden industry launched its new marketing strategy titled Improve Your Plant/Life Balance. This strategy was designed to meet objectives within the industry’s Strategic Plan 2010-2015.
The first phase was launched with the campaign, ‘Put a Plant on Your Desk’, and was judged an outstanding success. In 2012 the Australian nursery & garden industry takes the strategy to its next level with a campaign called ‘More Trees Please’, which has been developed in conjunction with an industry consultative panel.
This Nursery Paper outlines the objectives of this campaign, its key elements and the range of activities which will be implemented throughout the year. Importantly, this campaign will build upon the work already done to engage with target audiences through established social media networks.
Managing Plant Pathogens in Recycled Irrigation Water
A researcher from the University of Melbourne has reviewed the scientific literature related to managing plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water. Plant pathogens present in the irrigation system of commercial plant nurseries and greenhouses constitute a disease risk to plants, and the continual recycling of this water can exacerbate this risk. Plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water can be managed by treatment methods from four broad categories: cultural, physical, chemical and biological. An integrated approach using one or more techniques from each category is likely to be the most effective strategy in combating plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water. This Nursery Paper compiles this information to enable growers to compare treatments and consider the best strategy for their enterprise.
Does plant diversity in biofilters affect stormwater runoff quality and quantity? Prudence Hucker and Claire Farrell (The University of Melbourne)
This nursery paper reports on the outcomes of a research trial that examined the effects of increased plant diversity (number of species) on the quality and volume of runoff from biofilters. Biofilters are small plantings incorporated into streetscapes and are used to remove pollutants such
as metals, nutrients and sediments from stormwater. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether biofilters with increased plant diversity, especially those which include monocots will be most effective at reducing stormwater volume and improving quality. This research was undertaken
at The University of Melbourne by Prudence Hucker as part of her Honours degree in Natural Resource Management. Her research was supervised by Dr Claire Farrell and was made possible by direct funding from NGIA through the Nursery Industry Research & Development Levy.
The Effect of Biochar Amended Growing Media on Plant Nutrition and Growth
Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in using biochar as soil amendments to improve and maintain soil fertility and to increase soil carbon sequestration. Unfortunately, most of this research has failed to investigate whether biochar behaves similarly when incorporated in growing media. In this NurserPaper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko summarises preliminary research undertaken by Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) to assess the effect of biochar.....
Estimating the benefits of Australian Street Trees using i-Tree Stratum - A Pilot Study
A US software package called i-Tree STRATUM designed to quantify the physical and economic benefits of street trees was trialled by University of Melbourne in a study of two Melbourne city councils, the central City of Melbourne and the newer City of Hume on the cities outskirts. This research was made possible by direct funding from Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) through the ....
Sampling for Analysis
Analysing plant tissue, soil, growing media, water and hydroponic solutions produces numerous benefits to the grower: a proven process to achieve much healthier and stronger crop growth with higher yields and added disease resistance; production becomes more efficient as growth improves due to less plant stress and less disease control measures; and minimised crop loss. The key to effective analysis is timing and knowing how .....
Managing Myrtle Rust in Australia
Myrtle rust (Uredo rangelii) has the potential to infect all myrtaceous plants within our built (gardens & landscape), rural and natural environments along the coastline of Australia. Under threat from this disease, if it becomes widely established, are a number of identified threatened native plant species across Australia plus a range of endangered wildlife habitat(s) that could have a major impact on our natural biodiversity. Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald details in this Nursery Paper how to recognise and manage myrtle rust in Australia.
The Role of Collaboration in Building a Sustainable Nursery Industry
This Nursery Paper looks at the changing landscape of commercial business where relationships are the corner stone of success. It has been found that the impact of collaborative relationships on business can be twice as significant as a company’s aggressiveness in pursuing new market opportunities and five times as significant as the external market environment (Microsoft News Centre, 2006). First delving into cross sector partnerships with community outcomes in mind, we will then digress to the benefits of businesses working with each other within the industry. This culminates in the form of Business to Consumer (B2C) collaboration, where the economic model of comparative advantage plays a key role in establishing a more sustainable industry.
Biosecurity – what is it and what does it mean to the nursery and garden industry?
The Nursery and Garden Industry grows and supplies a vast range of plants to many different regions of Australia. Plants grown by the industry are subject to a range of pests across the different climatic regions and environments throughout Australia. It is not just the existing established pests within Australia which the nursery industry should be concerned about. Exotic plant pests not currently known to exist in Australia are a real threat as well. Fortunately, due to the geographic isolation of Australia, we have had relatively few of the exotic plant pests which have impacted on plant industries overseas such as Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). Freedom from these pests is a vital part of the future profitability, productivity and sustainability of Australia’s plant industries and will also help protect the natural environment and landscape across Australia. (Michael Danelon, Nursery Industry Development Officer NGINA).
Managing Liverworts and Mosses in Nurseries
In this Nursery Paper Robert Chin, NGIV Nursery Industry Development Officer takes a closer look at liverworts and mosses. He shows the detrimental effects they have on the nursery industry as well as their general environmental implications. He also suggests preventative measures and cultural techniques and treatments to best manage them on your nursery premises.
NIASA Greenlife Market Accreditation
Following the inception of the Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme Australia (NIASA) in 1996, there has been over 260 businesses gain NIASA accreditation. During this time, the program has gone through several updates to ensure it continues to meet Industry Best Practice. In 2010, the National NIASA Accreditation Committee identified an opportunity within the program for Greenlife Markets to gain NIASA Greenlife Market accreditation. In this Nursery Paper NGISA Industry Development Officer (IDO), Grant Dalwood outlines how Greenlife Markets can become accredited under the NIASA program....
Improve your plant life balance
On March 2 2011 the Nursery & garden Industry will launch its most ambitious and dynamic marketing campaign in many years. Across the country more than 20,000 plants will be given away to commuters as they arrive for work. Dressed in branded t-shirts, promotional staff and more than 80 industry personnel will create a buzz as we stimulate interest in plants and the national Improve Your Plant/Life Balance campaign.
In this Nursery Paper Jacqui Gibbs NGIA’s Marketing and Communications Manager presents the campaign, the rationale behind it and the plans for expanding the campaign over the coming three-five years.
In 2009, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) undertook a survey to identify the success of industry initiatives associated with invasive plant management. The survey titled ‘National Invasive Plants Survey’ was undertaken by Dr Anthony Kachenko (NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager) and Delwyn Thomas (Project Consultant) and involved two parts. The first part evaluated production and availability lists from 328 businesses across the country whilst the second part of the survey was a questionnaire relating to awareness of industry invasive plant initiatives. (December 2010, issue 11)
The nursery and garden industry has a new Strategic Plan following extensive consultation with all sectors of industry. (November 2010, issue 10)
Garden Centre benchmarking (phase one)
We all use anecdotal evidence to see how our business is performing compared to other retail sectors and other garden centres but often this information is exaggerated and getting factual information can sometimes be a challenge. Factual benchmarking of key business indicators allows you to judge your business performance and make decisions to improve your business based on business facts, rather than assumptions. In this Nursery Paper, international retail consultancy John Stanley Associates provides you with benchmarking advice and tools to help monitor your business. (October 2010, issue 9)
In the growing of plants there are fundamental aspects which need to be fulfilled to allow the plants to grow and develop to their optimal genetic potential. Light, water, nutrients and oxygen are just some of the key components. The challenge for any commercial nursery person involved in the production of plants is to provide a suitable balance of the above aspects in order to achieve the most optimum result with the least use of resources and economic outlay. This involves a thorough understanding of the growing media and the importance of selecting the most appropriate media to achieve optimum plant performance. (September 2010, issue 8)
Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by a business or product. The term is often discussed in conjunction with climate change and variability and is also increasingly being used by consumers to identify more environmentally-friendly products. (August 2010, issue 7)
New UTS research has found strong evidence supporting the benefits of office plants for reducing stress and negative mood states in office workers. Plants were found to promote wellbeing, and therefore, potentially performance. (July 2010, issue 6)
Plant labelling – the first point of contact in knowing about the plant
For those without significant horticultural knowledge, a plant label is an effective way of establishing the name of a plant, information about its attributes and cultural requirements. It is also effective in advertising a plant and achieving a sale for those who have produced and/or promoted it.(June 2010, issue 5)
Micro propagation or plant tissue culture (TC) has become more common in the nursery industry and its use is becoming more widespread as new plant varieties are brought onto the market in large numbers. Plant tissue culture can be a complicated and technical process that should be, generally speaking, left to the experts. The de-flasking of tissue cultured plantlets for propagating is a much simpler procedure that you can do in your production nursery. As with any process, there is a right and wrong way and there are many things that can impede success. In this Nursery Paper, Industry Development Officer for Victoria, Robert Chin, will introduce you to the basics of the plant tissue culture process, focusing on de-flasking, and the do's and don'ts to ensure that you maximise your returns and produce a saleable crop.(May 2010, issue 4)
Frost damage to nursery crops across Australia is a continuing issue with recent frosting events occurring in previously believed ‘frost free’ areas. In 2007 coastal areas of southern Queensland experienced severe frosts, some less than 500m from the ocean, which resulted in tens of thousands of dollars worth of damage. In this Nursery Paper Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald explains how to anticipate a frosting event and mitigate the damage to your crop.(April 2010, issue 3)
The Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ) had identified a plant disease diagnostic product developed by United kingdom based company Forsite Diagnostics, that is portable, cost effective, accurate, rapid and reliable (96% correlation to laboratory based diagnosis).(March 2010, issue 2)
The Nursery & Garden Industry Young Leader Award acknowledges an individual, younger than 35, who demonstrates a contribution to industry businesses, particularly in participation to industry activities and strong leadership skills. In this Nursery Paper we acknowledge and celebrate our 2010 State Young Leaders who will be interviewed by a panel of esteemed industry personnel and vie for the national title. The National Young Leader will be announced at the 2010 NGI Awards Gala Dinner held in conjunction with the National Conference at Darwin in April.(February 2010, Issue 1)
There are a range of intellectual property laws associated with plants, trademarks and associated contracts. Recently, patent law has become more widely utilised providing an additional tool for the Nursery & Garden Industry to assist with the protection of intellectual property involved with the breeding, selection and selling of new plant varieties. In this Nursery Paper Robert Chin, Nursery Industry Development Officer for Victoria will introduce you to the process of plant patents and how the may affect the way your protect your plants into the future.(December 2009, issue 11)
In this Nursery Paper Gerard McEvilly, Horticulture Supply Chain Services and Tom Rafferty, Supply Chain STO, highlight the hidden costs along the horticulture supply chain that are within our control or influence. The industry has plenty of information and tools to help build effective business practices. Putting these to work will enable enterprises to seize the many opportunities offered.(November 2009, issue 10)
The Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ) has completed an innovative project transferring a popular pest and disease identification handbook to an electronic format. The resource has all the data stored on a memory card that can be inserted into portable platforms such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and some Smartphones. The identification tool has almost 200 factsheets with 782 images and uses touch screen menu navigation.(October 2009, issue 9)
Historically, interstate biosecurity risks within Australian horticulture have been focused on the produce from food based crops and the likely impact on state based primary industries. In recent years state biosecurity agencies have identified the increased pest risks associated with interstate greenlife trade and are acting to minimise these risks through plant movement regulations. The nursery industry must adapt to this increased attention and enhanced regulatory pressure through professional on-farm monitoring, record keeping and pest management.
In this Nursery Paper Grant Dalwood, Nursery & Garden Industry South Australia (NGISA) Industry Development Officer (IDO) discusses plant health in Australia and the newly implemented South Australia Plant Health Act 2009 and how it affects those who are both exporting to and importing into South Australia.(September 2009, issue 8)
According to recent research, Amenity Horticulture is one of Australia's fastest growing industries, closely linked to urban development and lifestyle. Nursery and garden enterprises employ approximately 30 per cent of all workers in the 'agriculture' industry. Does a 'fast-growing industry' require special attention by government to assist it in the skilling and employment of personnel into the industry? Or, does the responsibility of this role lie on the shoulders of industry bodies and/or individual employers? The answer is both. In this Nursery Paper we look at training, career and employment in the 'fast-growing' Amenity Horticulture Industry, how government is helping us in these areas and what we as industry are doing to help ourselves.(August 2009, issue 7)
Relying on Mother Nature to earn a living can be unpredictable and risky, regardless of the size or location of your business. Businesses in the Nursery Industry require robust risk management plants, tailored insurance products and services and the support of their Industry Association to guide them through the myriad of issues. In this Nursery Paper, we take a closer look at the insurance and risk management advice and benefits to your business.(July 2009, issue 6)
As environmental awareness among the Australian community escalates, the need for Nursery & Garden Industry (NGIA) to promote its environmental credentials has never been more vital. In recent years, NGIA has taken significant steps to address key environmental issues.(June 2009, issue 5)
Our latest research shows that consumers want to have sustainable gardens and are keen to use water-saving products to achieve them. This Nursery Paper gives you all the information you need on Smart Approved WaterMark, Australia?s labeling scheme for products and services that help save water in the garden and around the home, from how it works and the types of products that are included, to how to apply for the Smart Approved WaterMark and promoting the label to consumers.(September 2008, issue 7)
Whether you are a nursery operator, a propagator or a wholesaler you will, at some time, come across plant varieties that are protected by plant breeder?s rights (PBR). In this Nursery Paper, Jay Sanderson and Kathryn Adams from the Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture (ACIPA) explore the Australian PBR scheme, outlining the criteria for PBR protection, the scope of the right, the application process and the exceptions to PBR protection.(February 2008, issue 1)
Many of the plants on the market are new, improved varieties. But does the industry, let alone consumers recognise the time, effort, expertise and cost involved in developing these plants? We pay a premium for a superior vintage wine or to eat at a first class restaurant, but are we prepared to pay more for better quality plants? The industry and gardeners should support our plant breeders and celebrate the fact that Australians are now developing and exporting our own flora rather than letting other countries reap the benefits. Australia has a greater gene pool of flowering plants than any country in the world, but in the past we have been slow to recognise the value and commercial potential of our native plants. In this Nursery Paper, freelance horticultural writer Helen Moody discusses and applauds plant breeding in Australia.(April 2009, issue 3)
Using innovative computer technologies creatively can provide a leading edge to your business, but currently how many in our industry can put their on hand on their heart and say they have exploited it to its full potential? These days the technology is more often than not being designed with the desire to keep it simple, user-friendly and often very cost effective. With society using these technologies as a ubiquitous part of their lives, why are we not exploiting these benefits and opportunties more for our industry? In this Nursery Paper, Marcus Ragus of the Natural Resources Department, TAFE Tasmania and Peter Bobbi, NGIT Industry Development Officer, provide examples of innovative technologies that are readily available and detail on what these can do for our industry.(August 2006, issue 6)
The nursery and garden industry has the highest percentage of plant varieties protected by intellectual property rights both in Australia and overseas. In this nursery paper, Jay Sanderson and Kathryn Adams of the Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture (ACIPA) introduce readers to the field of intellectual property. Some understanding of intellectual property is essential for all sectors of the nursery and garden industry including growers, wholesalers and retailers, who routinely deal with intellectual property protected plant varieties. Understanding intellectual property principles can not only help you to understand your rights and responsibilities but can also assist you in maximising your business opportunities. (TNP 2007#05)
In 2006, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) commissioned a team of environmental consultants to conduct a National Water Use Survey of both production and retail businesses. The survey aimed to generate a detailed and accurate picture of water use and water management practices in the industry. This month's Nursery Paper, written by former National Environmental Policy Manager Rebecca Dawson, explains the results of the Water Use Survey, highlighting how the nursery and garden industry compares to other agricultural sectors. The paper also includes information on the impact of water restrictions on the industry and recommendations on how the industry can continue to improve its water use efficiency. (TNP 2007#01)
In this month's Nursery Paper, the principal author of the Ipsos Mackay Report, Randall Pearce, portrays 'home' as the ultimate expression of who we are. However, he makes the point that the home should be as dynamic as its occupants and that it should reflect the various states and stages of our lives...both indoors and outdoors.(TNP 2006#07)