Nursery Papers

Nursery Paper December 2020

15 December 2020

Managing a plant fungus in nursery production

This Nursery Paper provides an overview of the symptoms, diagnosis, management and prevention of a plant fungus, using Thielaviopsis basicola, Black Root Rot (BRR) as an example.


Nursery Paper November 2020

13 November 2020

Water management for production nurseries

Water is the horticultural and nursery industries’ most precious resource.The efficient and effective management of water use should be top ofmind for production nurseries throughout the year, but even more so aswe head into the warmest months across the country.


Nursery Paper October 2020

15 October 2020

Managing a Plant Virus in Nursery Production

Plant viruses are minute pathogens which infect and multiply within thehost plant. They are almost always of detriment to the host plant andcan potentially cause dramatic economic consequences to productionnurseries and the industry.
  • Viruses can infect a number of different plant species and can be transmitted and transferred via insects, mites, nematodes, fungi as well
  • This Nursery Paper provides an overview of the symptoms, diagnosis, management and prevention of a plant virus, using reference to the common Apple Mosaic Virus.
  • With the world focused on the management of the current global pandemic of Coronavirus, it’s important to remind industry of the importance of plant health and nursery biosecurity with respect to managing a plant virus.


Nursery Paper September 2020

11 September 2020

Cultivating the nursery industry’s most important resource – people

An integrated approach to nursery industry careers is being progressed based on the five themes of Promotion, Policy, Training, Human Resource Management and Career Pathways.


Nursery Paper August 2020

14 August 2020

Insecticide Mode of Action and Resistance Management in Production Nurseries

Insecticides are an important component in the management of pests in virtually all horticultural crops. However, they should not be solely relied upon as overuse is increasingly costly, can induce insecticide resistance and may cause phytotoxicity.


Nursery Paper July 2020

16 July 2020

International Year of Plant Health

2020 is International Year of Plant Health, a declared initiative being led globally by the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organisation.


Nursery Paper June 2020

15 June 2020

Supplying Australia’s green cities

With the Australian urban population increasing, and the health benefits of green space becoming clearer, urban developers and governments are becoming increasingly interested in creating greener communities.


Nursery Paper May 2020

13 May 2020

The Arrival Of Fall Armyworm

The emergence of yet another exotic plant pest on our shores highlights the importance of having a strong, reliable plant protection and biosecurity program that protects our production nursery industry. This Nursery Paper will inform nurseries of the pest (Fall armyworm), host list, biology and will also highlight some of the procedures that will help businesses effectively manage this pest.


Nursery Paper April 2020

17 April 2020

Benchmarking For Success

The latest Nursery Industry Statistics report for the 2018/19 financial year assessed data from 305 production nurseries. It found that total farmgate sales experienced an increase from the previous year, with sales reaching $2.44 billion in 2018-19, an increase of 1.6% from the previous year, unadjusted for wholesale to wholesale sales. The number of plants sold by Australian production nurseries exceeded 2 billion over a 12-month period.


Nursery Paper March 2020

13 March 2020

Making the marketing levy work for you

Marketing is an incredibly important function of any business. The nursery industry’s marketing levy enables an investment in a marketing program that raises awareness of the importance of green space amongst consumers, business and government, as well as generate demand for greenlife throughout the value chain.


Nursery Paper February 2020

14 February 2020

Risk mitigation for the nursery industry

Australia is a land of extremes, characterised by droughts, fires and floods. Cyclones are an unnerving familiarity in the tropics and of course the 19/20 bushfire season one of the worst on record.


Nursery Paper December 2019

12 December 2019

War On Waste

Waste is an inevitability in all industries. For production nurseries, the monetary cost, environmental impacts and societal expectations have shifted this once peripheral issue, into a core component of business strategy.


Nursery Paper November 2019

20 November 2019

Creating Personalised Management Plans for Key Nursery Pests

Management of pests will always play a significant role in the production of nursery stock. This Nursery Paper will assist production managers to develop a personalised plan to deal with the most significant pests relevant to their business.


Nursery Paper October 2019

18 October 2019

Specifying Tree stock for success

Growing high-quality tree stock provides greater certainty to customers that trees are fit for purpose and will have a successful life in the landscape. This Nursery Paper looks at the new guide for growing high-quality trees, the Tree Stock Specifications Appendix, available in the latest NIASA manual.


Nursery Paper September 2019

19 September 2019

Mastering the art of gross margins in production nurseries

Financial analysis allows growers to look inside the workings of their business and improve decision-making. Courses such as the Masterclass of Horticultural Business are a stepping-stone to build financial literacy and gain exposure across all parts of a business plan.


Nursery Paper August 2019

19 August 2019

Global review and gap analysis of nursery industry research anddevelopment initiatives

A new global review conducted by RM Consulting Group (RMCG) has unearthed leading RD&E from around the world, highlighting the opportunities for Australia’s nursery industry to learn from what is currently occurring in other countries and adopt practices and technology to our conditions and systems.


Nursery Paper July 2019

05 July 2019

Neonicotinoid Insecticides - no replacements but there are alternatives

Neonicotinoid (Neonic) insecticides have been an important chemical tool to manage pests in Australian production nurseries for more than twenty years, with imidacloprid (e.g. CONFIDOR) the most recognised neonic used in horticulture.


Nursery Paper June 2019

12 June 2019

Nursery Industry Career Path Development Strategy

The nursery industry faces challenges with attracting and retaining staff, and providing opportunities for professional development. The industry’s high staff turnover rate and perceived limited career pathways, make it difficult to source qualified entrants and retain existing ones.


Nursery Paper May 2019

15 May 2019

Benchmarking Tool Enables Nurseries to 'Mean' Business

An estimated 1.9 billion plants were sold by Australian production nurseries in 2017-18.
That’s according to the latest Nursery Industry Statistics 2017-18 report, which assessed data from a record number of 292 growers surveyed across Australia.


Nursery Paper April 2019

10 April 2019

Roadshow unveils new Tree Stock Standard

In this Nursery Paper, we revisit the research findings that led to a broader, more applicable tree standard, as well as the national roadshow, which brought together 450 growers and landscape professionals to learn about the updated criteria.


Nursery Paper March 2019

11 March 2019

The Importance Of Correct Pest And Disease Identification In Nursery Production

Pest ID ( is now freely available to all of industry as an identification tool to inform your pest management programs. The public release of the tool complements the general rise in growers who have embraced Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in recent years.


Nursery Paper February 2019

13 February 2019

Producing 'Plant Life Balance'

The nursery industry’s consumer facing campaign, Plant Life Balance, is encouraging Australians to bring more green life into their homes, workplaces and communities.


Nursery Paper December 2018

20 December 2018

Review and maintenance of irrigation

Water and irrigation is a critical part of any production nursery. Well-designed irrigation ensures that water is applied evenly and efficiently across a nursery’s production areas, from propagation through to stock for sale.


Nursery Paper November 2018

19 November 2018

Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Good For People, Plants And Profit

Although many of the underlying principles of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) have been practiced for millennia, the formalisation of the IPM concept began in the 1950’s in response to the negative impacts of broadscale pesticide use.


Nursery Paper October 2018

24 October 2018

Back to Basics: Water Management

In this nursery paper, we explore efficient water use including irrigation techniques to minimise wastage through the NIASA best practice program. We also profile nurseries committed to effective water management, which is boosting plant quality and positioning the industry as responsible water users.


Nursery Paper September 2018

25 September 2018

Integrating Green Life into Buildings and Infrastructure

There is a compelling case for prioritising green infrastructure; after all it makes our cities cooler, promotes architectural and development diversity, and makes communities healthier and happier.


Nursery Paper August 2018

27 August 2018

Effective use of sticky traps

Sticky traps are a valuable aid in monitoring crops to detect early pest infestations, or to demonstrate a property is free of certain flying insects. The traps record and highlight the activities of these pests and, over time, will show population trends and guide the direction for future pest management.


Nursery Paper July 2018

19 July 2018

Rust diseases and their management in production nurseries.

Rusts can be very damaging to a large number of plants grown by the production nursery industry and are sometimes difficult to manage. Rusts are highly specialised, obligate parasites of plants that obtain their nutrients from living plant cells; they cannot gain nutrients from dead plant material. Rusts may parasitise one species of a plant during their life cycle or may sometimes attack two unrelated species. They have complicated lifecycles, producing up to five different types of spores that serve different functions. Rusts are generally quite host-specific, attacking only a small number of closely related plant species, but exceptions occur. Successful management of rust diseases generally involves a range of integrated approaches including cultural practices and pesticides during high risk periods.


Nursery Paper June 2018

18 June 2018

Investing in our most precious resource, people

Australia’s nursery industry is worth $2.29 billion and employs 27,000 people nationwide. It encompasses a diverse range of occupations from plant breeding and production right through to marketing and sales.


Nursery Paper May 2018

15 May 2018

Reducing Reliance on Pesticides

Growers have long relied on pesticides to protect their crops, butlong term options for new chemistry are diminishing due to decreasedinvestment by chemical companies.
The nursery industry has secured minor use permits for appropriatepesticides to be used in the near future, but these are a short termsolution.
With this level of use comes more exposure to continual reviews bygovernment regulators, and adverse effects can mean restricted useor the chemical may be deregistered altogether.
This Nursery Paper looks at the need for nurseries to transition fromusing pesticides to applying Integrated Pest Management (IPM)principles to future-proof production.


Nursery Paper April 2018

18 April 2018

NGIA National Conference: The Growing Edge

Every two years, Nursery &Garden Industry Australia (NGIA)holds a national conference tobring together growers, retailers,suppliers, government andstakeholders, to discover the latestresearch and trends advancing thegreen life sector.
In February 2018, more than 240delegates attended The GrowingEdge in Hobart, Tasmania, to hearfrom an exciting line up of nationaland international speakers.This nursery paper shines aspotlight on the people and topicsthat make it the flagship eventfor Australia’s nursery industry.
More specifically, the R&D andmarketing presentations and whatthe outcomes mean for growers.


Nursery Paper March 2018

14 March 2018

New data provides tools for the future

A unique project seeking to quantify the value of the nursery industry’s contribution to the Australian economy has delivered statistics and a new data tool to help the industry better plan for the future. The Nursery Industry Statistics and Research 2016/17 (NY16004) project has, for the first time, shown that Australia’s thriving nursery and garden businesses produced an estimated $2.29 billion worth of green life in 2015-16.
The project surveyed more than 200 production nurseries and revealed that there are 23,000 people across the nation working in approximately 1,777 nursery and garden businesses. The project also produced a user friendly data tool to enable nursery operators to benchmark themselves against other businesses, so as to help them to boost their own profitability.


Nursery Paper February 2018

14 March 2018

Where should all the trees go?

The nursery industry has a goal of 20 per cent tree canopy cover for Australia’s urban environments by 2020. To help achieve this, being able to measure the amount of canopy cover that currently exists and the best ways to manage and increase it is an important tool. The 2014 report Where are all the trees? created Australia’s first national baseline measurement of tree canopy cover in 139 local government areas (LGAs). This Nursery Paper explores a follow-up project Where should all the trees go? Investigating the impact of tree canopy cover on socioeconomic status and wellbeing in LGA’s (NY16005), which aimed to correlate the amount of tree cover with social, economic and health outcomes for urban residents.


Nursery Paper December 2017

21 December 2017

Greening our cities for the future

Australia’s dynamic nursery and turf industries are joining forces with a range of public and private institutions in cutting edge research to help build the case for more green space in our communities and our cities.The Green Cities Fund forms one of the seven components of the Hort Frontiers strategic partnership initiative, which was developed by Hort Innovation to future-proof and advance Australia’s $11.3 billion horticulture sector


Nursery Paper November 2017

24 November 2017

Nursery Supply Chains and Logistics

Australia’s nursery and garden supply chain is diverse and multi-faceted. Moving green life from production to consumption may seemstraight forward, but growers are faced with a range of logistical challenges, compounded by rising transportation costs.


Nursery Paper October 2017

27 October 2017

Endophytes and latent pathogens - Implications for the Nursery Industry

Endophytes are fungi that reside in living plant tissue for all or part of their life cycle, without causing any apparent or detectable symptoms of disease.
Although generally benign, some have the ability to develop into aggressive pathogens and cause a range of symptoms including dieback, cankers or fruit rots, when trees or plants are stressed. These types of endophytes are usually referred to as latent pathogens.
Endophytic latent pathogens are an important biosecurity concern, since they can be moved undetected in plant material and once introduced into a new area, may move onto other hosts and cause disease epidemics.
In this Nursery Paper we examine endophytes in more detail and consider their potential future impact on the industry.


Nursery Paper September 2017

25 September 2017

Xylella Fastidiosa: One of the world's most feared plant pathogens

The bacteria Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen of significant concern worldwide and would rank as one of Australia’s most feared plant pathogens. In recent years it has infested crops from America to Europe and its spread is likely to continue.Many landscape species such as elms, maples, oaks and oleander are affected, along with important cropping plants including citrus, grapes, olives, almond, peach and coffee. Other hosts include avocado, blueberry, plum, pecan, sour cherry, rosemary and blackberry. In this month's Nursery Paper the team from the National Nursery Industry Biosecurity Program will explore X. fastidiosa in depth and examine some of the current outbreaks around the world.


Nursery Paper August 2017

09 August 2017

Which Plant Where?

A key challenge for greening Australia’s urban environments is to ensure that plantings are made with trees, shrubs and turf that will survive and thrive for many decades to come.
This Nursery Paper outlines the aims of a five-year research project which brings together a consortium of research and industry partners to investigate the suitability of various plant species under current and future climate scenarios and in various urban areas, from street plantings to housing developments and open spaces.


Nursery Paper July 2017

17 July 2017

Testing the tree stock standard

The Australian standard for producing quality landscape trees ensures a nationally consistent benchmark for quality tree stock for landscape use. A component of the current standard focusing on root to shoot balance criteria can be influenced by the climate trees are grown in, the species of tree, the treatment they receive in the nursery, and regional differences in their performance. In 2016-2017, researchers assessed 13,820 trees in 23 wholesale nurseries to see how well Australian Standard 2303:2015 Tree Stock for Landscape Use applies to trees of different species and climates in nurseries across the country, with specific emphasis on tree stock
balance and size index equations. This Nursery Paper looks at the findings of their research and their
recommendation that the current standard is modified.


Nursery Paper June 2017

25 May 2017

Education and Training; Vital for aThriving Industry

Horticulture is a rapidly expanding industry in Australia, with an increase in the value of both the production and lifestyle sectors. This means there has never been a more important time for horticulture, and the nursery industry, to continually improve the skills and knowledge of owners, managers and staff to ensure businesses remain strong and profitable in a changing world. The industry is investing significant amounts in overcoming some of the barriers it faces, and this Nursery Paper addresses both the challenges and opportunities available.


Nursery Paper May 2017

20 April 2017

National Nursery Industry Biosecurity Program
The National Nursery Industry Biosecurity program (NY15004) is a comprehensive levy funded project which aims to ensure that production nurseries in Australia have access to an on-farm biosecurity program (BioSecure HACCP). It also ensures that production nurseries are aware of and prepared for incursions of exotic plant pests and have effective market access mechanisms in place to maintain business functionality. The program has seen a number of activities completed and this Nursery Paper will highlight some of the work being done in these areas.


Nursery Paper April 2017

12 April 2017

Data, the key to a national industry voice

Collecting data about nursery production is challenging, due largely to the diversity of the industry and the number of times plants can be sold before reaching the end user. Whether you are a business operating in the nursery and garden industry in Australia, a key stakeholder representing industry interests or a commercial enterprise looking to engage with businesses in the industry, the lack of accurate data makes it difficult to plan for the future. This Nursery Paper looks at why the nursery and garden industry should embrace the capture and sharing of information. Through commentary from a leading industry grower, it examines how the benefits of industry data for individual businesses can outweigh concerns around sharing information. A new project addressing industry data needs is underway. The consortium of Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA), ACIL Allen Consulting and Down to Earth Research is on a mission to collect statistics accurately and in enough detail to track industry performance over time, assess market trends, and prioritise spending for the future.


Nursery Paper March 2017

15 March 2017

Nursery Industry Water Management Best Practice Guidelines

Water use is a major issue for the nursery industry. Environmental concerns, climate variability, water shortages and increased water costs continue to put pressure on growers to address water use efficiency. For many nursery managers, the question is how to optimise production while reducing water use, in a cost effective way. This Nursery Paper recaps some of the available research on water use efficiency to help growers make the best production decisions for their businesses.


Nursery Paper February 2017

13 February 2017

Green roofs improve worker productivity

Having a room with a view really does make a difference— even when you are at work or studying. This nursery paper outlines the psychological benefits of vegetation growing on city building roofs, on those working in nearby buildings. Dr Kate Lee’s research investigated the type of roof-top vegetation that workers preferred as well as the effect of green microbreaks on concentration, mood, and overall work performance.


Nursery Paper Dec 2016

12 December 2016

Minor Use Permit Pesticide Program

The Minor Use Permit (MUP) Pesticide program allows for pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc), that do not have a legally approved label registration, to be applied in a nonregistered cropping system under an authorised APVMA permit. In this Nursery Paper, National Biosecurity Manager John McDonald explains how managing the National MUP Pesticide program delivers new chemistry to support on-farm plant protection management activities.


Nursery Paper Nov 2016

16 November 2016

The success of tree planting starts at the beginning of a tree’s life and the eventual impact of nursery production decisions may not be seen immediately. The nursery industry is on a journey to refine a standard for landscape trees, ensuring they thrive for centuries in a greener Australia. This began in April 2015 with the introduction of the Australian standard for tree stock for landscape use (AS 2303:2015). Research is currently underway by the Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment to evaluate this standard and assess the real-world performance of nursery trees grown for landscaping purposes.


Nursery Paper Oct 2016

08 September 2016

The production and sale of healthy nursery stock is essential, as production nurseries are the very heart of our ornamental, vegetable, fruit and forestry industries. To manage plant diseases effectively, nursery managers can monitor for specific, high-risk pathogens using baiting techniques. This paper can be used as a guide to conduct different baiting techniques for Phytophthora. These methods extend normal crop monitoring, can be implemented easily by nursery managers and assist in resolving urgent disease problems. This nursery paper has been produced by Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries pathologists as part of a nursery levy funded project.


Nursery Paper Sep 2016

08 September 2016

Once an old railway corridor in inner Sydney, the Goods Line has been redeveloped into a vibrant hub and green space transforming the way local office workers, students and tourists use the urban precinct.
This Nursery Paper looks at some of the social and environmental changes that have occurred at the Goods Line since its redevelopment in 2015. Research undertaken by the UTS Institute for Sustainable Futures evaluates the type and scale of changes emerging from urban renewal projects and the importance of green space in big cities.


Nursery Paper Aug 2016

11 August 2016

Meeting the needs of modern biosecurity legislation

BioSecure HACCP is the Nursery Industry’s best practice biosecurity program for production nurseries. A lot has changed since 2008, when BioSecure HACCP Guidelines were first made available to growers, including changes to the way that government deals with biosecurity. In this Nursery Paper, NGIA’s National Biosecurity Manager John McDonald and NGIA Technical Assistant Grant Telford talk about recent changes to biosecurity legislation, and how BioSecure HACCP is well positioned to assist growers in meeting modern biosecurity related legislative requirements.


Nursery Paper Jul 2016

11 August 2016

Synthetic vs Natural Growth promoting hormones

The nursery industry has been using synthetic auxins such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to assist in the development of adventitious roots on plant cuttings for many decades. This Nursery Paper provides an overview of research by Masters student Apriwi Zulfitri to determine if inoculation of plant cuttings with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may be a cost-effective alternative to using synthetic auxins in the propagation of ornamental plants.


Nursery Paper Jun 2016

01 June 2016

Removing barriers to urban greening

Across Australia, there is core-level support for the principles of urban greening in our large towns and cities. However, legislative and policy barriers exist at all levels of government that need to be overcome before widespread adoption can occur at the rate required to achieve the 202020 Vision goals. This Nursery Paper summarises a report by Josh Byrne & Associates detailing the existing barriers and the recommended actions that can enable planners to implement more green space in urban developments.


Nursery Paper May 2016

01 May 2016

The value of a leafy neighbourhood

People like living in leafy suburbs, and an avenue of a single tree species has a special appeal—but what value do homebuyers place on having trees along the street and how does the size, age, health and diversity of the trees influence their purchasing decisions? These were the questions that University of Queensland researcher Lyndal Plant set out to answer. Ms Plant’s research has quantified the additional value that homebuyers place on the quantity and type of trees in the streetscape.


Nursery Paper April 2016

04 April 2016

What to Expect from Current R & D Projects

The end of 2015 marked the beginning of a swag of new research and development (R&D) projects that benefit and support the nursery industry. In this Nursery Paper we will take a look at how R&D priorities are set, what the current projects aim to deliver and how anyone can put forward new ideas for funding to investigate critical issues affecting the industry.


Nursery Paper November 2015

19 October 2015
National Plant Helath and Biosecurity Project delivers benefits for australian production nurseries

In this month's nursery paper Dr Andrew Manners and Dr Lindy Coates of the Queensland Department of Agriculture & Fisheries provide an update on a levy funded project which has delivered some excellent support for the industries capacity in the areas of plant health and biosecurity.


Nursery Paper October 2015

19 October 2015

Tree stock for landscape use

After many years of discussion, debate and development, AS2303:2015 Australian Standard Tree stock for landscape use was introduced in April 2015. This paper will cover the need for a standard, some of the background in developing the standard, some of the key aspects of the standard and future developments for the standard.


Nursery Paper September 2015

27 August 2015

Roots, Hormones and in-between - Back to Fundamentals

In this month’s Nursery Paper NSW Industry Development Officer, Des Boorman presents a fundamentals review of the important aspects of a propagation system conducive to high quality plants with particular emphasis on root quality.


Nursery Paper August 2015

27 August 2015

How efficacious are chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ultraviolet radiation asdisinfectants against waterborne pathogens in irrigation water?

In this month’s Nursery paper NSW Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon reviews some recently conducted levy funded research investigating the efficacy of some popular water disinfestation methods.


Nursery Paper July 2015

27 August 2015

Nursery Production Pest Monitoring, Inspection and Surveillance Methodology

In 2013 NGIA commissioned a project to investigate statistically valid systems and protocols for on-farm monitoring, inspection and surveillance for pests of biosecurity concern within production nurseries. The project, completed in 2014, has investigated national and international information and systems and has developed recommended monitoring, inspection and surveillance protocols that have the highest probability of success. NGIQ Industry Development Manager John McDonald provides details in this Nursery Paper on the key project outcomes for use within production nurseries.


Nursery Paper June 2015

19 June 2015

The use of gas in nursery management

The various types of environments encountered within the nursery sector vary greatly from full sun outdoor to climatically controlled indoor environments. Subsequently the need to control all types of factors within the range of applications will also vary. Gasses in various forms have been used for many years to control, treat and fumigate all types of problems occurring. This paper is aimed at updating knowledge within the industry and perhaps opening aspects of control that have been over looked for many years and due to new pest and insect incursions.


Nursery Paper May 2015

19 May 2015

Plant photosynthetic growth and photomorphogenesis under LED light

Light is undeniably one of the most influential, complex and particularly challenging factors to control in plant development.

To meet the demands of peak sales a majority of production will occur in late winter to early spring, however natural light levels or the photosynthetic daily light integral (DLI) is understandably low at this time of year. Fortunately, the level required to produce quality material can be supplemented with additional lighting. The use of artificial light is technology worth exploration in Australian nurseries, in order to increase production and quality. This is supported by recent studies suggesting that growers can benefit from supplementary lighting such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), high-pressure sodium lights (HPS) and numerous other alternatives.


Nursery Paper April 2015

10 April 2015

The importance of the greenhouse environment to the successful growing and merchandising of plants

Plants have optimum requirements for successful growth and development and minimizing the environment for pest and diseases. The goal of growers and plant managers should be to improve production and the health of the plants for long term success. To achieve this, a multitude knowledge and management skills are required to fulfil markets and the consumer expectations for healthy plants. Ultimately, optimal management of the total environment can equate to long terms profits and customer satisfaction for potential repeat business. In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer, Michael Danelon seeks to raise awareness of the importance of identifying and managing your greenhouse environment to the successful production and merchandising of plants and minimising the environment for plant pest and disease.


Nursery Paper March 2015

10 April 2015

Waste management and disposal in the nursery industry

Waste management and disposal have always been a part of business processes for Australian production nurseries. In recent times, the types of waste have changed and disposal costs have continued to increase. A greater use of product packaging has led to an increase in the amount of plastic and cardboard requiring disposal. The increasing cost to process these surplus resources, in addition to a community preference for resource recovery instead of landfill disposal, has led production nurseries to consider new ways to reduce waste management costs while also embracing environmental sustainability.


Nursery Paper February 2015

11 February 2015

Efficacy of Organic Amendments Used in Plant Production

In this month’s Nursery Paper, consultant and Honorary Fellow at Melbourne Universities School of Land and Environment, Dr Sally Stewart-Wade reports on a comprehensive literature review undertaken for NGIA on the science behind whether organic amendments are useful in containerized plant production.


Nursery Paper December 2014

11 February 2015

Design Issues and Beneficial Outcomes from Greening a Childcare OutdoorSpace for Babies and Toddlers.

In this month’s Nursery Paper Anne-Marie Morrissey, Caroline Scott and Llewellyn Wishart from Deakin University report on levy funded research focusing on the benefits of greenspace in childcare centres.


Nursery Paper November 2014

11 February 2015

Street tree diversity and canopy quality influences urban microclimate andpedestrian thermal comfort.

In this month’s Nursery Paper Ruzana Sanusi and Stephen Livesley from the University of Melbourne report on some ley funded research investigating the impact of street tree diversity and corresponding canopy quality have on pedestrian thermal comfort.


Nursery Paper October 2014

07 November 2014

Barcodes – Beyond compliance

Barcodes are commonly used throughout the nursery industry to identify products in a retail setting, but what other opportunities do barcodes offer industry?
NGIA Policy and Technical Officer Chris O’Connor, takes a brief look at barcodes and the potential they have for the industry as well as what systems exist beyond barcodes.


Nursery Paper September 2014

11 September 2014

American Study Tour 5-16 July 2014

“One must travel, to learn. Every day, now, old Scriptural phrases that never possessed any significance for me before, take to themselves a meaning.” Mark Twain 1869, The Innocents Abroad.
In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGIA Policy & Technical Officer, Chris O’Connor reports on outcomes and some key highlights from the recent industry study tour to the United States.


Nursery Paper August 2014

11 September 2014

Indoor Heat Stress Mitigation with Urban Vegetation and Tree Shading

In this month’s Nursery Paper, Zhengen Ren, Dong Chen, Guy Barnett and Xiaoming Wang from CSIRO’s Land and Water Research Flagship, report on levy funded research examining the potential that trees have to reduce the impact of heat waves on health and energy use.


Nursery Paper July 2014

11 September 2014

A Systems Approach to Managing Pests, Diseases & Weeds BioSecure HACCP

On Monday 21 October 2013 the testing of BioSecure HACCP to meet interstate market access requirements began with a trial between Queensland and Victoria. The BioSecure HACCP trial ran through until 21 April 2014 overseen by Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland, Nursery & Garden Industry Victoria, as well as the biosecurity agencies of Queensland and Victoria. This world leading holistic on-farm biosecurity program delivers a structured on-farm pest, disease and weed management system that has shown it can be used to support interstate market access. In this month’s Nursery Paper John McDonald, Industry Development Manager Queensland, gives an account of the trial and records grower feedback on the value of the program.


Nursery Paper June 2014

11 September 2014

Growing Media Storage

With soilless growing media being integral to the success of greenlife and contributing to the sustainability of a business, regular monitoring and appropriate storage of media should be considered a critical component to your nursery’s operation. In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIV Industry Development Officer (IDO), David Reid outlines best practice storage requirements for both bulk and packaged soilless potting media.


Nursery Paper May 2014

28 May 2014

The Importance of Suitable Sources of Irrigation Water to Nursery Businesses

Poor quality water can have potential impacts to plant health and product quality when used in the production, maintenance and detailing of plants for sale. A source of high quality irrigation water at an affordable price is critical to the successful production and maintenance of plants. Consideration should be given not only of the irrigation water applied directly to the plants, but also to the overall production and irrigation systems in place. In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer, Michael Danelon seeks to raise awareness of the importance of identifying your water source and managing irrigation water, along with covering some simple testing parameters and information resources.


Nursery Paper April 2014

08 May 2014

Pesticide Application on Edibles

Pesticides are an essential tool in the control of pests in nursery production. However special consideration should be given to the use of pesticides on edible crops especially those with potential to be readily eaten. In this month’s Nursery Paper Grant Dalwood (NGISA) and Chris O’Connor (NGIA) remind industry of some of the key considerations when it comes to pesticide application in edible crops.


Nursery Paper March 2014

26 March 2014

Pruning & Staking- Back to Basics

In light of the recent work being conducted to draft an Australian standard for tree stock, there has been renewed focus throughout the industry on tree quality. In this month’s Nursery Paper NGINA IDO for the Northern Rivers Des Boorman will undertake a back to basics review of the importance, use and techniques of root control, pruning and staking stock for consistent quality production.


Nursery Paper February 2014

26 March 2014

Accurately diagnosing weeds, pests and diseases affecting nursery crops.

Accurately diagnosing weeds, pests and diseases affecting nursery crops can be challenging. If left unchecked these pests can increase costs and reduce productivity. Therefore it is important to take action early to prevent widespread infestations through correct diagnostics.

This months nursery paper was prepared by Andrew Manners* (Senior Entomologist and manager of Grow Help Australia DAFFQ) and John Duff* (Senior Plant Protectionist DAFFQ) as part of the levy funded project ‘NY11001 Plant health, biosecurity, risk management and capacity building for the nursery industry.


Nursery Paper December 2013

13 January 2014

Valuing the urban forest in Sydney

Any grower can tell you the price of a tree but how many can tell you the value that trees offer to the community? The objective of the project “Understanding the carbon and pollution mitigation potential of Australia's urban forest” was to test and improve methodologies for evaluating the ecological and social value of the urban forest. In this months nursery paper, Dr Marco Amati of La Trobe University explains how this was done along two major highways in Sydney.


Nursery Paper November 2013

13 January 2014

Managing Chemicals of Security Concern Across the Nursery & Garden Industry Supply Chain

The Council of Australian Governments has identified 11 chemicals that are considered high-risk because they can be used to make homemade explosives. Australian governments in partnership with industries have developed a voluntary National Code of Practice for Chemicals of Security Concern to provide information and guidance on minimising the risk of these chemicals falling into the wrong hands.

In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGIA Research & Market Development Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of the voluntary code as well as existing industry resources to manage chemicals of security concern across the nursery & garden industry supply chain.


Nursery Paper October 2013

13 January 2014

Certified Budwood Schemes – helping to protect: you, your business, industry, environment and the community.

The ability of the nursery industry to secure “high-health” plant propagation material does exist for some commodities via certification and improvement schemes. However, material is not available for all types of material needed by plant industries In this month’s Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon looks at some of the options available to the industry to secure plant propagation material with the purity, authenticity and reliability to perform and enhance both the industry and environment.


Nursery Paper September 2013

02 October 2013

Automating Irrigation Scheduling in Nursery Production

Traditionally irrigation scheduling in production nurseries has been determined by past experience (gut feel) and the setting of specific run times depending on the season. Other common methods employed include manual moisture assessment of individual containers, daily evaporation measurements or using a weight method to determine a container’s water holding capacity.

In this month’s Nursery Paper Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald and Research Scientist David Hunt describe the water use efficiency and cost savings achieved through the automation of irrigation scheduling.


Nursery Paper August 2013

11 September 2013

Bridging the Ebusiness Technology Gap in the NSW Nursery and Garden Industry

In this month’s Nursery Paper NGINA Business Skills Development Officer, Bob Wynyard reports on recent work undertaken in developing E business solutions and training in the Nursery Industry. (August 2008, issue 8)


NGIA Nursery Paper July 2013

18 July 2013

Managing iron in nursery irrigation systems

Having a source of good quality water is vital to any professional nursery operation. In this month’s Nursery Paper, Victorian Industry Development Officer David Reid examines iron content in nursery irrigation systems, covering why it may be of concern and how best to manage it.


NGIA Nursery Paper June 2013

17 June 2013

Management of fungus gnats in nursery production

This months nursery paper was prepared by Dr. Andrew Manners Senior Entomologist at the Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, and examines the managment of Fungus Gnats in Nursery production. Fungus gnats are a common problem in production nurseries and propagation greenhouses and can cause significant damage, economic loss and the spread of fungal diseases. To manage fungus gnats, careful and deliberate planning is required.


NGIA Nursery Paper May 2013

17 June 2013

Emerging Biosecurity threats and industry preparedness.

Biosecurity is an ongoing challenge for our Industry with new exotic plant pests and diseases emerging around the globe. In this month’s Nursery Paper NSW Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon looks at some of these emerging threats to Australia and how our industry is positioned to deal with these.


NGIA Nursery Paper April 2013

09 April 2013

Urban Vegetation and Heat Related Mortality

In this month’s Nursery Paper, Dr Dong Chen and the team from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) look at urban vegetation and its impact upon heat related mortality. This research represents one of the first attempts to develop quantitative estimates of the potential benefit of urban vegetation in reducing heat related mortality.The project involved modelling of vegetation and mortality relationships for the summer of 2009 and projected future climates in Melbourne. Different urban vegetation scenarios were tested, with the forest scheme predicted to achieve up to 100% reduction in excess mortality rate in comparison with the CBD vegetation scheme. From these results it is recommended that urban vegetation be a key component in heat wave mitigation and for preventative health.


NGIA Nursery Paper March 2013

12 March 2013

Crisis Management in the Australian Nursery Industry

There are a number of issues which have the potential to escalate into a crisis and cause serious adverse commercial and reputational impact to the Australian nursery and garden industry, both at an individual business level and at a state or national organisation level. As an industry we must take the opportunity to be prepared to address these issues before they arise. In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Policy and Technical Officer Chris O’Connor explains what a crisis is in the nursery industry, the importance of crisis management, steps to take during a crisis and where to turn to if you need help with a crisis.


NGIA Nursery Paper February 2013

14 February 2013

Survey of Nursery Industry Attitudes towards the Australian Urban Forest

In order to better understand the attitudes of the Australian nursery and garden industry (NGI)
in relation to urban forests, Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) undertook a Survey
of Nursery Industry Attitudes towards the Australian Urban Forest. The survey was conducted
online via Survey Monkey during September and October 2012 and targeted the retail,
production and allied sectors of the Australian NGI. In this month’s Nursery Paper,
NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko reports on
the key results and recommendations of this survey.


NGIA Nursery Paper December 2012

11 December 2012

Minor Use Pesticide Program

The Minor Use Pesticide program allows for pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, plant growth regulators, etc.), that do not have a legally approved label registration, to be used in a non-registered cropping system under an authorised APVMA permit. In this months Nursery Paper, Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald explains how managing the National Minor Use Pesticide Portfolio delivers new chemistry to support on-farm plant protection management activities.


NGIA Nursery Paper November 2012

16 November 2012

Fungicide resistance

Fungicides are often used as a critical part of an integrated pathogen control strategy as pathogenic fungi have the ability to significantly reduce the yield and quality of plant stock if left untreated. However with incorrect management there is potential for fungicide resistance to develop. In this month's Nursery Paper Industry Development Officer David Reid investigates fungicide resistance and explores suitable methods for controlling this.


NGIA Nursery Paper October 2012

17 October 2012

Reducing the Pest Risk – Industry’s Policy Position on Biosecurity and Quarantine

Nursery and Garden Industry Australia launched ‘Reducing the Pest Risk – The Australian Nursery and Garden Industry's Policy Position on Quarantine and Biosecurity’ at its National Conference on Thursday 15 March 2012. The Policy Position paves the way for industry to ensure biosecurity responsibilities are shared equally between governments, industry and the community as part of the biosecurity continuum.
In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of this Policy Position and what it means for industry.


NGIA Nursery Paper September 2012

03 September 2012

Cylindrocladium diseases of nursery plants

Various species of the fungus Cylindrocladium cause a wide range of destructive diseases in nursery plants and are particularly prevalent in more tropical areas. Cylindrocladium scoparium occurs worldwide, and is the most commonly reported causal agent of Cylindrocladium diseases in Australia, although a number of other species are also important pathogens including Cylindrocladium spathiphylli.

This nursery paper was prepared by Lindy Coates, Leif Forsberg and Tony Cooke (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF), Queensland) as part of levy funded project NY11001 Plant health, biosecurity, risk management and capacity building for the nursery industry. It provides an overview of the fungus Cylindrocladium and how to prevent and control this disease of nursery plants.


NGIA Nursery Paper August 2012

02 August 2012

How to Minimise the Effects of Carbon Pricing on Nursery Production Systems

On July 1 2012, the new carbon price policy – Clean Energy Future – was introduced by the Australian Government. While the nursery industry will not be directly involved in the carbon price mechanism, it is expected that the carbon price will result in cost increases for key agricultural inputs with the most significant costs relating to energy and energy intensive inputs such as fertilisers, chemicals and machinery .
In this month’s Nursery Paper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko provides an overview of strategies that can be applied within production systems to minimise the impact of the carbon price policy .


NGIA Nursery Paper July 2012

02 July 2012

A pest concern for Production Nurseries that reinforces the need for IPM in your business

Over the past few years many new varieties of plant species have been developed and sold widely within the nursery industry of Australia.

Subsequently, as plant stocks increase within production nurseries and variations in local climatic conditions have their effect on insects and pests in and around crops, different issues are raised regarding identification and treatment of unusual pest problems that generally do not require treatment!

In this months Nursery Paper IDO Grant Dalwood looks at the impacts of Midge Flies on the nursery industry and suitable methods for their control.


NGIA Nursery Paper June 2012

08 June 2012

Mitigating Extreme Summer Temperatures with Vegetation

Recently, Dr Dong Chen and the team from Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) and NGIA modelled the potential benefit of vegetation in reducing extreme summer temperatures in Melbourne CBD under different climate scenarios. Results showed that the cooling benefit of various urban forms and vegetation schemes may be in the range of 0.3°C to 2°C. The team also found that although Melbourne is projected to be warmer in 2050 and 2090, the relative benefit of urban vegetation will not change significantly. In this Nursery Paper, Dr Dong Chen details the rationale to this research and the results to date.



NGIA Nursery Paper May 2012

08 June 2012

Do herbicides applied in production nurseries have thepotential to leach and accumulate in water storages?

The use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) are an integralpart of containerised plant production. They are used to assist nurserymanagers in maintaining a clean, healthy growing environment, whilereducing labour to manage pests and weeds. In this Nursery Paper, NGINAIndustry Development Officer Michael Danelon summarises the findings of aresearch project looking into “Herbicide residues in nursery dam water: A pilotmonitoring program report” conducted by the Department of Employment,Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) Queensland.


NGIA Nursery Paper April 2012

22 May 2012

The Nursery Production Plant Health & Biosecurity Project

The use of pesticides (herbicides, insecticides and fungicides) are an integral part of containerised plant production. They are used to assist nursery managers in maintaining a clean, healthy growing environment, while
reducing labour to manage pests and weeds. In this Nursery Paper, NGINA Industry Development Officer Michael Danelon summarises the findings of a research project looking into “Herbicide residues in nursery dam water: A pilot
monitoring program report” conducted by the Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) Queensland.

The Nursery Production Plant Health & Biosecurity Project covers a number of disciplines including research, industry development and extension in partnership with Agri-Science Queensland. The project is aimed at enhancing and strengthening the capacity of industry to plan, manage and respond to plant pest issues across Australia at both a farm and strategic national level. In this Nursery Paper, NGIQ Industry Development Manager John McDonald, provides a summary of this significant industry levy funded project.



NGIA Nursery Paper March 2012

20 March 2012

Taking our strategy to the next phase - More Trees Please to Improve your Plant/Life Balance.

In 2011 the Australian nursery & garden industry launched its new marketing strategy titled Improve Your Plant/Life Balance.   This strategy was designed to meet objectives within the industry’s Strategic Plan 2010-2015.

The first phase was launched with the campaign, ‘Put a Plant on Your Desk’, and was judged an outstanding success.  In 2012 the Australian nursery & garden industry takes the strategy to its next level with a campaign called ‘More Trees Please’, which has been developed in conjunction with an industry consultative panel.

This Nursery Paper outlines the objectives of this campaign, its key elements and the range of activities which will be implemented throughout the year. Importantly, this campaign will build upon the work already done to engage with target audiences through established social media networks.


NGIA Nursery Paper February 2012

01 February 2012

Managing Plant Pathogens in Recycled Irrigation Water

A researcher from the University of Melbourne has reviewed the scientific literature related to managing plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water. Plant pathogens present in the irrigation system of commercial plant nurseries and greenhouses constitute a disease risk to plants, and the continual recycling of this water can exacerbate this risk. Plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water can be managed by treatment methods from four broad categories: cultural, physical, chemical and biological. An integrated approach using one or more techniques from each category is likely to be the most effective strategy in combating plant pathogens in recycled irrigation water. This Nursery Paper compiles this information to enable growers to compare treatments and consider the best strategy for their enterprise.


NGIA Nursery Paper December 2011

01 December 2011

Does plant diversity in biofilters affect stormwater runoff quality and quantity? Prudence Hucker and Claire Farrell (The University of Melbourne)

This nursery paper reports on the outcomes of a research trial that examined the effects of increased plant diversity (number of species) on the quality and volume of runoff from biofilters. Biofilters are small plantings incorporated into streetscapes and are used to remove pollutants such

as metals, nutrients and sediments from stormwater. The purpose of the trial was to investigate whether biofilters with increased plant diversity, especially those which include monocots will be most effective at reducing stormwater volume and improving quality. This research was undertaken

at The University of Melbourne by Prudence Hucker as part of her Honours degree in Natural Resource Management. Her research was supervised by Dr Claire Farrell and was made possible by direct funding from NGIA through the Nursery Industry Research & Development Levy.


NGIA Nursery Paper November 2011

09 November 2011

The Effect of Biochar Amended Growing Media on Plant Nutrition and Growth

Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in using biochar as soil amendments to improve and maintain soil fertility and to increase soil carbon sequestration. Unfortunately, most of this research has failed to investigate whether biochar behaves similarly when incorporated in growing media. In this NurserPaper NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager, Dr Anthony Kachenko summarises preliminary research undertaken by Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) to assess the effect of biochar.....


NGIA Nursery Paper October 2011

04 October 2011

Estimating the benefits of Australian Street  Trees using i-Tree Stratum - A Pilot Study
A US software  package  called i-Tree STRATUM designed  to quantify the physical and economic benefits of street trees was trialled by University of Melbourne  in a study of two Melbourne  city councils, the central City of Melbourne  and the newer City of Hume on the cities outskirts.  This research was made possible by direct funding from Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) through the ....


NGIA Nursery Paper September 2011

15 September 2011

Sampling for Analysis

Analysing plant tissue, soil, growing media, water and hydroponic solutions produces numerous benefits to the grower: a proven process to achieve much healthier and stronger crop growth with higher yields and added disease resistance; production becomes more efficient as growth improves due to less plant stress and less disease control measures; and minimised crop loss. The key to effective analysis is timing and knowing how .....


NGIA Nursery Paper August 2011

13 September 2011

Managing Myrtle Rust in Australia

Myrtle rust (Uredo rangelii) has the potential to infect all myrtaceous plants within our built (gardens & landscape), rural and natural environments along the coastline of Australia. Under threat from this disease, if it becomes widely established, are a number of identified threatened native plant species across Australia plus a range of endangered wildlife habitat(s) that could have a major impact on our natural biodiversity. Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald details in this Nursery Paper how to recognise and manage myrtle rust in Australia.


NGIA Nursery Paper June 2011

15 June 2011

The Role of Collaboration in Building a Sustainable Nursery Industry

This Nursery Paper looks at the changing landscape of commercial business where relationships are the corner stone of success. It has been found that the impact of collaborative relationships on business can be twice as significant as a company’s aggressiveness in pursuing new market opportunities and five times as significant as the external market environment (Microsoft News Centre, 2006). First delving into cross sector partnerships with community outcomes in mind, we will then digress to the benefits of businesses working with each other within the industry. This culminates in the form of Business to Consumer (B2C) collaboration, where the economic model of comparative advantage plays a key role in establishing a more sustainable industry.


NGIA Nursery Paper May 2011

31 May 2011

Biosecurity – what is it and what does it mean to the nursery and garden industry?

The Nursery and Garden Industry grows and supplies a vast range of plants to many different regions of Australia. Plants grown by the industry are subject to a range of pests across the different climatic regions and environments throughout Australia. It is not just the existing established pests within Australia which the nursery industry should be concerned about. Exotic plant pests not currently known to exist in Australia are a real threat as well. Fortunately, due to the geographic isolation of Australia, we have had relatively few of the exotic plant pests which have impacted on plant industries overseas such as Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum). Freedom from these pests is a vital part of the future profitability, productivity and sustainability of Australia’s plant industries and will also help protect the natural environment and landscape across Australia. (Michael Danelon, Nursery Industry Development Officer NGINA).


NGIA Nursery Paper April 2011

15 April 2011

Managing Liverworts and Mosses in Nurseries
In this Nursery Paper Robert Chin, NGIV Nursery Industry Development Officer takes a closer look at liverworts and mosses. He shows the detrimental effects they have on the nursery industry as well as their general environmental implications. He also suggests preventative measures and cultural techniques and treatments to best manage them on your nursery premises.


NGIA Nursery Paper March 2011

15 March 2011

NIASA Greenlife Market Accreditation

Following the inception of the Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme Australia (NIASA) in 1996, there has been over 260 businesses gain NIASA accreditation. During this time, the program has gone through several updates to ensure it continues to meet Industry Best Practice. In 2010, the National NIASA Accreditation Committee identified an opportunity within the program for Greenlife Markets to gain NIASA Greenlife Market accreditation. In this Nursery Paper NGISA Industry Development Officer (IDO), Grant Dalwood outlines how Greenlife Markets can become accredited under the NIASA program....


NGIA Nursery Paper February 2011

21 February 2011

Improve your plant life balance

On March 2 2011 the Nursery & garden Industry will launch its most ambitious and dynamic marketing campaign in many years. Across the country more than 20,000 plants will be given away to commuters as they arrive for work. Dressed in branded t-shirts, promotional staff and more than 80 industry personnel will create a buzz as we stimulate interest in plants and the national Improve Your Plant/Life Balance campaign.

In this Nursery Paper Jacqui Gibbs NGIA’s Marketing and Communications Manager presents the campaign, the rationale behind it and the plans for expanding the campaign over the coming three-five years.


National Invasive Plants Survey

17 December 2010

In 2009, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) undertook a survey to identify the success of industry initiatives associated with invasive plant management. The survey titled ‘National Invasive Plants Survey’ was undertaken by Dr Anthony Kachenko (NGIA Environmental & Technical Policy Manager) and Delwyn Thomas (Project Consultant) and involved two parts. The first part evaluated production and availability lists from 328 businesses across the country whilst the second part of the survey was a questionnaire relating to awareness of industry invasive plant initiatives. (December 2010, issue 11)


Garden Centre benchmarking (phase one)

13 October 2010

Garden Centre benchmarking (phase one)

We all use anecdotal evidence to see how our business is performing compared to other retail sectors and other garden centres but often this information is exaggerated and getting factual information can sometimes be a challenge. Factual benchmarking of key business indicators allows you to judge your business performance and make decisions to improve your business based on business facts, rather than assumptions. In this Nursery Paper, international retail consultancy John Stanley Associates provides you with benchmarking advice and tools to help monitor your business. (October 2010, issue 9)


Will any growing media suffice to grow the best plants possible?

11 October 2010

In the growing of plants there are fundamental aspects which need to be fulfilled to allow the plants to grow and develop to their optimal genetic potential. Light, water, nutrients and oxygen are just some of the key components. The challenge for any commercial nursery person involved in the production of plants is to provide a suitable balance of the above aspects in order to achieve the most optimum result with the least use of resources and economic outlay. This involves a thorough understanding of the growing media and the importance of selecting the most appropriate media to achieve optimum plant performance. (September 2010, issue 8)


Nursery Footprint - a carbon footprinting tool

04 August 2010

Carbon footprint is a term used to describe the total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions generated by a business or product. The term is often discussed in conjunction with climate change and variability and is also increasingly being used by consumers to identify more environmentally-friendly products. (August 2010, issue 7)


The positive effects of office plants

09 July 2010

New UTS research has found strong evidence supporting the benefits of office plants for reducing stress and negative mood states in office workers. Plants were found to promote wellbeing, and therefore, potentially performance. (July 2010, issue 6)


Plant labelling the first point of contact in knowing about the plant

09 June 2010

Plant labelling – the first point of contact in knowing about the plant

For those without significant horticultural knowledge, a plant label is an effective way of establishing the name of a plant, information about its attributes and cultural requirements. It is also effective in advertising a plant and achieving a sale for those who have produced and/or promoted it.(June 2010, issue 5)


The Basics of Plant Tissue Culture

13 May 2010

Micro propagation or plant tissue culture (TC) has become more common in the nursery industry and its use is becoming more widespread as new plant varieties are brought onto the market in large numbers. Plant tissue culture can be a complicated and technical process that should be, generally speaking, left to the experts. The de-flasking of tissue cultured plantlets for propagating is a much simpler procedure that you can do in your production nursery. As with any process, there is a right and wrong way and there are many things that can impede success. In this Nursery Paper, Industry Development Officer for Victoria, Robert Chin, will introduce you to the basics of the plant tissue culture process, focusing on de-flasking, and the do's and don'ts to ensure that you maximise your returns and produce a saleable crop.(May 2010, issue 4)


Mitigating Frost Damage in Nursery Production

06 April 2010

Frost damage to nursery crops across Australia is a continuing issue with recent frosting events occurring in previously believed ‘frost free’ areas. In 2007 coastal areas of southern Queensland experienced severe frosts, some less than 500m from the ocean, which resulted in tens of thousands of dollars worth of damage. In this Nursery Paper Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald explains how to anticipate a frosting event and mitigate the damage to your crop.(April 2010, issue 3)


In-field rapid, portable & cost-effective plant disease diagnostics

09 March 2010

The Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ) had identified a plant disease diagnostic product developed by United kingdom based company Forsite Diagnostics, that is portable, cost effective, accurate, rapid and reliable (96% correlation to laboratory based diagnosis).(March 2010, issue 2)


The 2010 Nursery & Garden Industry State Young Leaders

17 February 2010

The Nursery & Garden Industry Young Leader Award acknowledges an individual, younger than 35, who demonstrates a contribution to industry businesses, particularly in participation to industry activities and strong leadership skills. In this Nursery Paper we acknowledge and celebrate our 2010 State Young Leaders who will be interviewed by a panel of esteemed industry personnel and vie for the national title. The National Young Leader will be announced at the 2010 NGI Awards Gala Dinner held in conjunction with the National Conference at Darwin in April.(February 2010, Issue 1)


Plant Patents - An alternative for the Nursery Industry

08 December 2009

There are a range of intellectual property laws associated with plants, trademarks and associated contracts. Recently, patent law has become more widely utilised providing an additional tool for the Nursery & Garden Industry to assist with the protection of intellectual property involved with the breeding, selection and selling of new plant varieties. In this Nursery Paper Robert Chin, Nursery Industry Development Officer for Victoria will introduce you to the process of plant patents and how the may affect the way your protect your plants into the future.(December 2009, issue 11)


Supply Chain Management holds the key to the viability of nusery enterprises

02 October 2009

In this Nursery Paper Gerard McEvilly, Horticulture Supply Chain Services and Tom Rafferty, Supply Chain STO, highlight the hidden costs along the horticulture supply chain that are within our control or influence. The industry has plenty of information and tools to help build effective business practices. Putting these to work will enable enterprises to seize the many opportunities offered.(November 2009, issue 10)


Electronic Pest, Disease, Beneficial & Weed Identification Tool

02 October 2009

The Nursery & Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ) has completed an innovative project transferring a popular pest and disease identification handbook to an electronic format. The resource has all the data stored on a memory card that can be inserted into portable platforms such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and some Smartphones. The identification tool has almost 200 factsheets with 782 images and uses touch screen menu navigation.(October 2009, issue 9)


Plant health in Australia

10 September 2009

Historically, interstate biosecurity risks within Australian horticulture have been focused on the produce from food based crops and the likely impact on state based primary industries. In recent years state biosecurity agencies have identified the increased pest risks associated with interstate greenlife trade and are acting to minimise these risks through plant movement regulations. The nursery industry must adapt to this increased attention and enhanced regulatory pressure through professional on-farm monitoring, record keeping and pest management.

In this Nursery Paper Grant Dalwood, Nursery & Garden Industry South Australia (NGISA) Industry Development Officer (IDO) discusses plant health in Australia and the newly implemented South Australia Plant Health Act 2009 and how it affects those who are both exporting to and importing into South Australia.(September 2009, issue 8)


Training, Careers & Employment in Horticulture

12 August 2009

According to recent research, Amenity Horticulture is one of Australia's fastest growing industries, closely linked to urban development and lifestyle. Nursery and garden enterprises employ approximately 30 per cent of all workers in the 'agriculture' industry. Does a 'fast-growing industry' require special attention by government to assist it in the skilling and employment of personnel into the industry? Or, does the responsibility of this role lie on the shoulders of industry bodies and/or individual employers? The answer is both. In this Nursery Paper we look at training, career and employment in the 'fast-growing' Amenity Horticulture Industry, how government is helping us in these areas and what we as industry are doing to help ourselves.(August 2009, issue 7)


Insurance in the nursery & garden industry

16 July 2009

Relying on Mother Nature to earn a living can be unpredictable and risky, regardless of the size or location of your business. Businesses in the Nursery Industry require robust risk management plants, tailored insurance products and services and the support of their Industry Association to guide them through the myriad of issues. In this Nursery Paper, we take a closer look at the insurance and risk management advice and benefits to your business.(July 2009, issue 6)


Supporting and Advancing Australian Plant Breeding

29 May 2009 Australian plant breeders have developed many improved native trees and shrubs that are widely sold in Australia and planted in gardens. A small number of companies are exporting the intellectual property of innovative native plants suitable for seasonal potted colour and bedding to overseas markets and reversing the traditional flow of royalties. A few have had international success with exotics such as proteas, petunias and Madeira daisies. Other organisations are hoping for international sales. While there are some great success stories, the breeders and marketers we surveyed signposted numerous difficulties in breeding and marketing new plants. In this Nursery Paper, the second of a two-part series on plant breeding, horticultural writer Helen Moody examines a number of issues that could be addressed to give greater support to Australian plant breeding.(May 2009, issue 4)


Working towards greener cities

29 May 2009 Nursery & Garden Industry Australia NGIA hosted the inaugural urban GreenScapes Symposium on 17 February 2009 to unveil the benefits of plants and green-life in the urban landscape and to encourage collaboration between all stakeholder groups to drive unity of message and develop awareness to create greener Australian cities. This Nursery Paper discusses the aims of the Symposium and the resulting outcomes.(March 2009, issue 2)


Assessment of hand watering in production and retail nurseries

29 May 2009 During 2008, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia NGIA commissioned the Department of Primary Industries & Fisheries, Queensland DPI&F, Qld to evaluate and quantify the efficiency of hand watering against other irrigation methodologies. In this month''s Nursery Paper, Dr. Rachel Pouler, DPI&F, Qld presents the results from this study.(February 2009, issue 1)


A generic economic decision model for the nursery industry to assess proposed changes to a business

29 May 2009 Many production nurseries are faced with making business decisions on a daily basis such as production planning, irrigation management, human resource issues and other operational matters. In recent times the issue of water use efficiency and managing water resources has been of increasing concern to many nurseries. A change in managing water use efficiency usually comes at a cost to the business but if nothing is done this could be of greater detriment.(December 2008, issue 10)


Upgrading an irrigation system can improve water uniformity and reduce your operating expenses

29 May 2009 Irrigation is a critical aspect to the success of any business growing and/or maintaining plants. With increased scrutiny of water usage, typically increasing charges in water and a reduced availability, all businesses should consider assessing the efficiency of their irrigation system to improve their triple bottom line. For many production nurseries the question is how to optimise production while reducing water use and doing this in an economic manner. This is the second part of a series of Nursery Papers on this topic. In this Nursery Paper Michael Danelon, Nursery & Garden Industry New South Wales & ACT NGINA Industry Development Officer IDO will identify the benefits of retrofitting an irrigation system in terms of the efficiencies gained to assist in justifying the return on investment to the business.(November 2008, issue 9)


Do soil moisture sensors have a role in containerised nursery production?

29 May 2009 The focus on water use efficiencies has become more stringent recently and there is a call for all industries to be accountable for their water use, however the finger has definitely been pointed to the irrigation industries and outdoor water use. In response to a need to offer improved water use efficiency techniques and encourage adoption, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia NGIA has commissioned the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries to undertake work in assisting adoption of innovative irrigation technologies. In this Nursery Paper Michael Danelon, Nursery & Garden Industry NSW & ACT NGINA Industry Development Officer IDO, explores the use of soil moisture sensors and the ability of these devices to be applied to soilless based containerised nursery production to appropriately monitor and schedule irrigation and hence optimise crop production whilst achieving water use efficiency.(October 2008, issue 8)


Smart Approved WaterMark: Helping consumers make water-wise choices

29 May 2009

Our latest research shows that consumers want to have sustainable gardens and are keen to use water-saving products to achieve them. This Nursery Paper gives you all the information you need on Smart Approved WaterMark, Australia?s labeling scheme for products and services that help save water in the garden and around the home, from how it works and the types of products that are included, to how to apply for the Smart Approved WaterMark and promoting the label to consumers.(September 2008, issue 7)


Changing perceptions for a stronger future

29 May 2009 How does the industry change its unjustified image of ''unskilled'' and in turn, endeavour to increase salaries, business success, keep up with current trends and practices, make the industry attractive as a career choice and retain valuable personnel? In this Nursery Paper, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia NGIA National Training & Recognition Manager, Fiona Kelly, talks about the value of changing perceptions and the role all industry members must play to move the industry forward.(July 2008, issue 5)


Promoting the green credentials of the nursery & garden industry to the consumer through World Environment Day

29 May 2009 World Environment Day is on June 5, and Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) is providing a unique opportunity to participate in the industry World Environment Day promotion throughout the month of June. The aim of the campaign, which falls under the Life is a Garden brand, “Our Environment, Your Backyard”, is to get people out into their gardens to make a difference in their own backyards, in turn encouraging the purchase of more green-life.(May 2008, issue 4)


What is NIASA and how can it benefit you?

29 May 2009 Just like many businesses in Australia, the nursery and garden industry has to deal with uncertain times. You only need to open a newspaper to read of rising interest rates and a global credit crunch, not to mention water shortages, global warming and carbon emissions. It can all get pretty gloomy, very quickly. Fortunately, our industry has schemes in place that can not only fortify your business but also help position you as an expert in your community when it comes to dealing with issues such as water conservation, resource management and biosecurity. This Nursery Paper will look at three production nurseries who have gained NIASA Accreditation and the positive impact that applying NIASA Best Management Practice has had on their business.(May 2008, issue 3)


Nursery Paper March 2008

29 May 2009
BioSecure HACCP

Nursery and Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) in partnership with Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) has developed Biosecure HACCP, a set of guidelines that will provide a systematic approach for production nurseries to assess their biosecurity hazards and responsibilities and manage the identified risks. In this Nursery Paper, Nursery and Garden Industry Queensland (NGIQ) Industry Development Manager (IDM) John McDonald talks about the Biosecure HACCP process, what it is used for and its benefits.


Plant Breeders Rights- An Australian Nursery & Garden Industry Perspective

29 May 2009

Whether you are a nursery operator, a propagator or a wholesaler you will, at some time, come across plant varieties that are protected by plant breeder?s rights (PBR). In this Nursery Paper, Jay Sanderson and Kathryn Adams from the Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture (ACIPA) explore the Australian PBR scheme, outlining the criteria for PBR protection, the scope of the right, the application process and the exceptions to PBR protection.(February 2008, issue 1)


Ornamental Plant Breeding in Australia

29 May 2009

Many of the plants on the market are new, improved varieties. But does the industry, let alone consumers recognise the time, effort, expertise and cost involved in developing these plants? We pay a premium for a superior vintage wine or to eat at a first class restaurant, but are we prepared to pay more for better quality plants? The industry and gardeners should support our plant breeders and celebrate the fact that Australians are now developing and exporting our own flora rather than letting other countries reap the benefits. Australia has a greater gene pool of flowering plants than any country in the world, but in the past we have been slow to recognise the value and commercial potential of our native plants. In this Nursery Paper, freelance horticultural writer Helen Moody discusses and applauds plant breeding in Australia.(April 2009, issue 3)


A taster of innovative technologies for the nursery & garden industry

29 May 2009

Using innovative computer technologies creatively can provide a leading edge to your business, but currently how many in our industry can put their on hand on their heart and say they have exploited it to its full potential? These days the technology is more often than not being designed with the desire to keep it simple, user-friendly and often very cost effective. With society using these technologies as a ubiquitous part of their lives, why are we not exploiting these benefits and opportunties more for our industry? In this Nursery Paper, Marcus Ragus of the Natural Resources Department, TAFE Tasmania and Peter Bobbi, NGIT Industry Development Officer, provide examples of innovative technologies that are readily available and detail on what these can do for our industry.(August 2006, issue 6)


The art of strategic merchandising

01 October 2007 Pile it high and watch it fly? Not always. Strategic merchandising involves far more than meets the eye - a well merchandised store engages shoppers and all their senses. More often than not, customers will walk out of a well merchandised store with cartloads of items they hadn't originally intended to buy. This Nursery Paper is written by renowned retailing expert, trainer and speaker Debra Templar, and examines the art of strategic merchandising. Covering store layout and presentation, the sensory retail experience and visual merchandising, this paper offers practical tips and hints for creating a uniquely successful shopping experience in your retail nursery or garden centre. (TNP 2007#10)


Transforming a dead spot into a hot spot: how to make the most of your retail space

01 September 2007 Making the most of your retail space is a key component of effective merchandising. Capturing the buying impulse of your customer is a science and an art that relies on an understanding of consumer behaviour in the sales environment. This Nursery Paper, written by renowned retailing expert, trainer and speaker Debra Templar, examines how to transform your shop into a retail hotspot. It explains the science of consumer purchasing patterns and the art of creative product placement. Most importantly, the paper outlines simple and practical yet effective strategies to help you capitalise on potential sales opportunities. (TNP 2007#09)


Avoiding the Discount Addiction

01 August 2007 To understand the full impact of continual discounting, it is useful to think of discounting as having addictive properties for both businesses and consumers. This Nursery Paper explores the causes, consequences and cure for the 'discount addiction' gripping the Australian retail market. Based on the work of Michael Cleghorn, renowned international trends forecaster and Director of Minc Consulting, this paper examines the consequences of feeding the discount addiction and the changing retail climate that has encouraged its spread. It concludes by outlining practical strategies for avoiding the discount addiction and succeeding in an increasingly competitive marketplace. (TNP 2007#08)


Taking control of your future - business succession planning

01 July 2007 We all like to believe that the hard work we put into building a thriving business today will reward us with a prosperous future. Unfortunately, things don't always work out the way we would like. This is why business succession planning is so important. This Nursery Paper provides a valuable introduction to succession planning for small and medium businesses. It explores what succession planning means, the benefits of looking ahead and the key to good succession planning. Most importantly, the paper explains why putting in place a detailed succession plan is the best way to ensure that you, your family, your staff and your business are equipped to deal with whatever life throws your way. (TNP 2007#07)


Reducing the water weed risk - How government and industry can contribute to a safer trade

01 June 2007 In 2004, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) joined the National Aquatic Weeds Management Group (NAWMG) to help implement a range of initiatives designed to tackle the issue of aquatic weeds. One such project is a weed risk assessment of water plants sold in aquariums and nurseries. This project aims to identify future water weed threats and remove such plants from sale. (TNP 2007#06)


Plant Intellectual Property

01 May 2007

The nursery and garden industry has the highest percentage of plant varieties protected by intellectual property rights both in Australia and overseas. In this nursery paper, Jay Sanderson and Kathryn Adams of the Australian Centre for Intellectual Property in Agriculture (ACIPA) introduce readers to the field of intellectual property. Some understanding of intellectual property is essential for all sectors of the nursery and garden industry including growers, wholesalers and retailers, who routinely deal with intellectual property protected plant varieties. Understanding intellectual property principles can not only help you to understand your rights and responsibilities but can also assist you in maximising your business opportunities. (TNP 2007#05)


Managing emergency plant pest incursions - the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed (EPPRD) and the nursery industry

01 April 2007 In 2005, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) formally joined the Australian Commonwealth and State/Territory Governments as a signatory to the Emergency Plant Pest Response Deed (EPPRD). The EPPRD is a plant biosecurity partnership agreement that sees Australian industries and Governments cooperating as equal parties in the management of emergency plant pests (EPPs). In this month's Nursery Paper, Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald explains the purpose of the Deed, its significance for EPP management, and the rights and responsibilities of our industry as one of the parties to this world-first agreement. (TNP 2007#04)


Future options - moving on from retailing or growing

01 March 2007 During tough market conditions, businesses in the nursery and garden industry are faced with the pressure of choosing whether to exit the industry or adapt to meet a changing market. This is the second of two Business Nursery Papers looking at future options for producers and retailers in the nursery industry. The first Future Options paper examined the major decisions, such as relocation, product change or diversification, undertaken by those who had chosen to stay in the industry but who also needed to improve profitability. In this Nursery Paper, Neville Sloss speaks with retailers and producers who have chosen to move on from growing or retailing and looks at what factors have been important in deciding that it's time to 'make the move'. (TNP 2007#03)


Water management in retail nurseries and garden centres

01 February 2007 Garden centres face many challenges in a competitive industry and no two are the same. Stock levels and type vary seasonally and the need to display plants to attract maximum sales will sometimes come into conflict with the requirements of efficient watering. This month's nursery paper, written by Industry Development Officer for Nursery & Garden Industry Victoria (NGIV) Robert Chin, examines ways of maximising water use efficiency in garden centres. The paper offers valuable tips to help improve your water use management and discusses how doing so may even generate greater sales in your business. (TNP 2007#02)


Water use in the nursery and garden industry - results of the 2006 Water Use Survey

01 January 2007

In 2006, Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) commissioned a team of environmental consultants to conduct a National Water Use Survey of both production and retail businesses. The survey aimed to generate a detailed and accurate picture of water use and water management practices in the industry. This month's Nursery Paper, written by former National Environmental Policy Manager Rebecca Dawson, explains the results of the Water Use Survey, highlighting how the nursery and garden industry compares to other agricultural sectors. The paper also includes information on the impact of water restrictions on the industry and recommendations on how the industry can continue to improve its water use efficiency. (TNP 2007#01)


EcoHort™ - the environmental management system for Australian nursery production

01 December 2006 Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) in partnership with Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) has developed a set of guidelines that provide a systematic approach for production nurseries to assess their environmental and natural resource management responsibilities. EcoHort™ is the industry specific set of guidelines or Environmental Management System (EMS). In this month's nursery paper, Queensland Industry Development Manager John McDonald discusses the importance of EcoHort™ for guiding businesses in our industry in sustainable management practices while continuing to promote profitability. (TNP 2006#12)


Weeds and the nursery industry

01 November 2006 The way we deal with invasive plants (or 'weeds') in Australia is becoming increasingly important. The nursery industry plays an active role in this battle, particularly in addressing the distribution, planting and control of species that may be damaging to the environment and agriculture. What does your nursery business need to know about invasive garden plants? What can you do and where do you go for more information? In this month's nursery paper, Robert Chin explores this often complicated issue and explains why, as an industry, we need to be working with the appropriate authorities. (TNP 2006#11)


Non-ornamentals: the forgotten members of our industry

01 October 2006 Ever stopped to think about the many products and services that are used in the process of growing and selling plants? Or about the many businesses that provide them? In this months nursery paper, Sandy Pate, Industry Development Officer for Western Australia, looks at our allied trade sector and the vital role they play in supporting a thriving and sustainable nursery and garden industry. (TNP 2006#10)


Future options: new directions for a profitable future

01 September 2006 This is the first of two Business Nursery Papers to look at future options for growers and retailers in the nursery industry. Both the market and consumers are changing − not necessarily in ways that everyone likes. Those under pressure are faced with two principal options − exit the industry, or adapt to meet the changing market and business conditions. Neville Sloss looks at those who have chosen the latter and finds out what advice they have for others. (TNP 2006#09)


Scheduling irrigation to maximise efficiency

01 August 2006 Irrigation scheduling is generally explained as 'applying the right amount of water at the right time'. Unfortunately, many nurseries just water to keep their plants alive. This often means that the plants with the highest water use or most frequent demand dictate how the whole nursery is irrigated. In this month's Nursery Papers, former NSW Department of Agriculture officer, creator of the Waterwork training course and renowned industry 'water guru' Chris Rolfe explains how you can manage your watering regime to better match the requirements of your plants. (TNP 2006#08)


Home is where the heart is

01 July 2006 The Ipsos Mackay Report is Australia's longest-running program of social research. Founded by noted social researcher and author, Hugh Mackay, the report helps marketers and retailers understand the mind and the mood of the Australian consumer.

In this month's Nursery Paper, the principal author of the Ipsos Mackay Report, Randall Pearce, portrays 'home' as the ultimate expression of who we are. However, he makes the point that the home should be as dynamic as its occupants and that it should reflect the various states and stages of our lives...both indoors and outdoors.

(TNP 2006#07)


Get the recognition you deserve - the Certified Nursery Professional Program

01 May 2006 The Certified Nursery Professional (CNP) program is the nursery and garden industrys professional recognition scheme for individuals. While CNP members are first and foremost recognised for their exceptional skill and expertise, they are also required to maintain their membership status by engaging in ongoing learning. This month's Nursery Paper profiles five industry members who have taken the opportunity to invest in themselves and join the program. These CNPs discuss why they joined, their experience of the program and most importantly, how being a CNP has strengthened their industry relationships and business profiles. (TNP 2006#05)


How efficient is your business water management?

01 April 2006 A 1999 national survey of nurseries that had attended a WaterWork workshop in any year since 1995 revealed that none of the participating nurseries knew or were willing to supply details on average water use, water costs, pumping costs, maintenance costs or hand watering labour costs relating to their business. In this month's Nursery Paper, creator of the WaterWork training course and renowned industry 'water guru' Chris Rolfe examines some of the topics a detailed water audit should assess. This auditing process will highlight the limitations and opportunities for optimising efficient water utilisation in your business. (TNP 2006#04)


Gardening: A modern-day oasis?

01 March 2006 The Ipsos Mackay Report is Australia's longest-running program of social research. Founded by noted social researcher and commentator, Hugh Mackay, the report helps marketers and retailers understand the mind and the mood of the Australian consumer. In this month's Nursery Papers, the principal author of the Ipsos Mackay Report, Randall Pearce, summarises the 9th annual 'Mind and Mood' report, which paints a picture of an Australian community which is “rougher, tougher, more competitive and less compassionate”, and proposes that gardens and gardening can have an increasingly calming effect on an already-frenzied world. (TNP 2006#03)


How do the new water rules affect your business?

01 February 2006 In Australia, over 70 percent of our available water is used for agricultural irrigation as compared to less than 40 percent in other high-income countries. In recent years, Australia's water use has come under much scrutiny in an effort to find ways to improve its water-use efficiency. In this month's Nursery Papers, Chris Rolfe, former NSW Department of Agriculture officer, creator of the Waterwork training course and renowned industry 'water guru', examines how the new water legislation affects businesses in the nursery and garden industry. He outlines the current water policy, highlighting recent changes and assessing the risks and implications of these reforms for your business. (TNP 2006#02)


Nursery and Garden Industry Strategic Plan 2006-08

01 January 2006 The nursery and garden industry has a new Strategic Plan following extensive consultation with all sectors of the industry. A two-day national summit held in November last year brought together national and state presidents and directors, executive officers, members of Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) and the Industry Advisory Committee (IAC). The new vision and plan has been adopted by the national and all state associations as the blueprint for future objectives and strategies. While the primary aim is to achieve a united and sustainable nursery and garden industry, the plan also seeks to lift the profile of the industry amongst consumers, the media and government. (TNP 2006#01)


Protecting your business against fire

01 November 2005 The fire season is nearly upon us once again. Many of our nursery businesses are in or near forested areas and even for those that aren't, fire is still a risk. Have you considered a fire safety plan for your business? Would your staff know what to do if a fire was heading your way, or worse still, was at your nursery? Fires, like any other emergency, are about risk management. This month's Nursery Paper looks at how proper planning can help you reduce the effects and even eliminate the risk of a fire before it occurs. (TNP 2005#11)


The cultural experience of retail

01 October 2005 Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) is a subscriber to The Ipsos Mackay Report - Australia's longest-running program of social research. Founded by noted social researcher and author, Hugh Mackay, the report helps marketers and retailers understand the mind and the mood of the Australian consumer. In this month's issue of NGIA Nursery Papers, the principal author of the Ipsos Mackay Report, Randall Pearce, casts the retail experience in a new light. He outlines how the retail experience is more than a commercial activity; it is a defining ritual of our consumerist times. In addition, he sketches some innovative ways for businesses in the nursery and garden industry to become part of this broader cultural experience. (TNP 2005#10)


Adding value to your product, your service and your customers experience

01 August 2005 Times are tight in the nursery and garden industry. And when times are tight, it's time to explore new ideas and approaches to the products that we sell. Drawing from his visit to several leading UK garden centres and Glee, often considered the world's biggest annual gardening and leisure event, Neville Sloss lends an international perspective to the question of how to add value to your business. This issue of NGIA Nursery Papers looks at what is being done to build businesses overseas and how these ideas can be implemented by Australian growers and retailers. (TNP 2005#08)


Threes a crowd, the three generation workplace.

01 July 2005 A workplace revolution is underway. As the Baby Boomer generation prepares to leave - taking a wealth of knowledge with it - Generation Y has a foot in the door and a mission to transform the workplace. Generation X, however, has its own ideas and isn't too keen on listening. Welcome to a workplace with three generations! Based on the work of award winning speaker, workshop leader and author Karen Schmidt, this Nursery Paper offers tips on not just surviving the revolution, but getting the best for your business from the three generation workplace. (TNP 2005#07)


Advising, Allocating and Approving - the role of the IAC

01 June 2005 Horticulture Australia Limited (HAL) is commissioned by the Federal Government with the task of managing the funds collected from the nursery products levy or 'pot levy' and overseeing the matching of Commonwealth research and development funding arrangements. To enable the nursery and garden industry to have input into this process, HAL has set up an Industry Advisory Committee (IAC) that consists of representatives nominated by Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA). This Nursery Paper explains how the Industry Advisory Committee operates and advises on the use of industry funds. (TNP 2005#06)


Achieving a profitable business

01 May 2005 The level of financial management skill and ability in many Australian small businesses is known to be low. As a result, many small businesses in Australia fail to achieve their full potential - profitability levels are low and proprietors do not reap the maximum benefit of their efforts. In addition, some common traits of entrepreneurs actually inhibit business success. There are however some simple tools that can significantly improve business profitability. This Nursery Paper summarises the presentation delivered by Tim Atterton, Director of Bankwest Entrepreneurship & Business Development Unit at Curtin Business School and Chairman of Small Business Development Corporation Western Australia, at the 2005 NGIA conference. (TNP 2005#05)


Understanding population and social trends

01 April 2005 Demographic and social trends within Australia continue to change. As a whole, the population is getting older and moving out from the bush to the coastal fringe, while world events and a growing economy have prompted significant social change. But what does all of this mean for the nursery and garden industry, and how can nursery businesses benefit? This Nursery Paper summarises population and social trend information presented by Bernard Salt, Partner with KPMG Australia, and Jem Wallis, Managing Director of Heartbeat, at the 2005 NGIA conference. (TNP 2005#04)


Professional strategies for profitable products and businesses

01 March 2005 There are many examples in our industry of products or businesses that are successful or heading towards success. In each case there is a fundamental element - a professional strategy to meet their goals. To survive and prosper in todays market a strategic plan for your business or specific product is essential. This Nursery Paper looks at three businesses in various stages of their strategic plans and the messages you can take from them to apply in your own business. (TNP 2005#03)


Development Officers Build Better Businesses

01 February 2005 The Development Officer network of the nursery and garden industry is an effective tool in the implementation of the industrys National Strategic Plan. Our well qualified and experienced Development Officers work with retailers, wholesalers and growers to help build better businesses, move towards accreditation and in turn promote our industry - all major objectives of the Plan. These development officers are employed by the state Nursery & Garden Industry associations to provide independent advice and support for a variety of state and national initiatives, including best management practices, accreditation, training and promotion. (TNP 2005#02)


Greenhouse design

01 January 2005 The basic function of a greenhouse is to provide more uniform and reliable plant growth, safer and easier work conditions and to minimise impact on the environment. While there are many different greenhouse design and climate control options available, it is helpful to consider greenhouses under three broad technology categories; being low, medium and high. (TNP 2005#01)


Hygiene in plant propagation

01 December 2004 By implementing hygiene protocols during the four stages of propagation you can increase efficiency and minimise endemic problems within the nursery. (TNP 2004#11)


Marketing programs: ideas from garden centres

01 November 2004 Retailing is getting harder and harder. So what are the marketing ideas that have been successfully used by garden centres to maintain and grow their business? The initiatives examined were submitted as part of the 2004 Australian Garden Industry Awards. (TNP 2004#10)


Using pot plants to clean indoor air

01 October 2004 Research by the University of Technology, Sydney, has shown how many pot plants are required to clean indoor air and if they work in different environments. This is part two of Nursery Paper 2001/2. (TNP 2004#09)


Water restriction effects on gardeners, and how to respond

01 August 2004 A recent study commissioned by NGIA has revealed that there is a great opportunity for retailers and producers to in our industry play a leading role in providing consumers with positive messages, information and resources about water use in the garden. (TNP 2004#07)


Simple integrated pest management (IPM) techniques

01 July 2004 Preventing pest and disease is better than trying to cure outbreaks. This Nursery Paper, second in a series of three, looks at implementing some simple Integrated Pest (and disease) Management (IPM) techniques based on research tested by the Virginia Farm Trials project in South Australia. (TNP 2004#06)


Tapping into the growing landscaper market

01 May 2004 If you think that supplying the landscaper market means you can get away with supplying lower quality plants and limited service, think again. Landscapers demand high quality plant (and lots of them) and top service. This Nursery Paper explores how production nurseries can better service the landscaper market by asking landscapers what they want and discovering some helpful hints from producers already doing it. (TNP 2004#05)


What is your core product?

01 April 2004 Its about being different to your competition. Martin Grunstein, Managing Director of Success Communications, and an expert in customer service believes that businesses in the Australian nursery and garden industry need to reassess how they differentiate themselves from the competition in order to survive. In this Nursery Paper Martin examines the key aspects for differentiation for retailers and producers - your core product and your value added services - and outlines the past, present and future of the industry. (TNP 2004#04)


Pest & disease - prevention is better than cure

01 March 2004 The Virginia Farm Trials in South Australia have been investigating practical onsite methods to better control pests and diseases in commercial vegetable and herb farms. The results are applicable to nurseries and the good news is that the control of Western Flower Thrips (WFT), and other pests like white fly and mites, can be greatly improved by simply assessing and improving existing pest management programs. (TNP 2004#03)


Landscaping, the growth opportunity for retailers

01 February 2004 It's not the Aussie backyard anymore, it's the Oz 'outdoor room'. Consumers are paying to create new 'outdoor rooms' that are an extension of their lifestyle. Retailers are in a unique position to benefit from this trend. (TNP 2004#02)


Spotted anything Unusual

01 December 2003 Look. Be Alert. Call an expert. The new National Plant Health Awareness Campaign targeting the nursery and garden industry is encouraging commercial plant producers and retailers to regularly check their plants for unusual pest or disease signs. (TNP 2003#12)


Understanding and managing nursery weeds

01 November 2003 The cost of weed control in container nurseries is estimated at between $3,700 and $8,470, but may be as high as $96,000 when weeds like bittercress (Cardamine spp.) and liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha) are present. To minimise weed control costs, nursery managers need an integrated weed management program involving an understanding of both the target weeds and available weed management options. (TNP 2003#11)


Your Development Officers

01 October 2003 The first industry Development Officer positions began in the early 1990's. Initially part-time positions, they were production or grower focused and concentrated on developing and carrying out the Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme, Australia (NIASA). Since then, this highly professional network has grown to 13 predominantly full time roles working with production nurseries, growing media suppliers and garden centres or retail nurseries. (TNP 2003#10)


Understanding gardeners and garden owners

01 September 2003 Gardeners and garden owners already believe gardening is good value for money. So nursery retailers and growers should focus on offering value and benefits for both products and services rather than worrying about price. This Nursery Paper summarises the findings of a consumer research study conducted by Mark Dignam & Associates Pty Ltd. (TNP 2003#09)


Ensuring safety in your nursery

01 August 2003 Is your production or retail nursery business safe for you, your employees and your visitors? All Australian businesses are under increasing scrutiny to ensure a safe workplace. Nursery businesses are no exception. This Nursery Paper provides useful workplace health and safety tips and a simple test you can use to assess health and safety standards in your business and highlight areas you need to address. (TNP 2003#08)


Designing a nursery reed bed

01 July 2003 Reed beds efficiently remove nutrients and organic matter from nursery runoff, see Nursery Paper Reed beds clean up nursery runoff water, issue number 2003/05. As a result, the Alstonville Centre for Tropical Horticulture in conjunction with Southern Cross University at Lismore, responsible for initial research and experimental reed beds, designed and helped construct a full scale reed bed system at Bau Farm nursery on the north coast of New South Wales. This Nursery Paper briefly explains some of the factors to be considered when designing and constructing a nursery reed bed. (TNP 2003#07)


Improving efficiencies within the nursery industry

01 June 2003 The nursery and garden industry is continually being forced to improve efficiencies in production, dispatch, transport, training and market research. As a result, nursery products levy money and considerable effort has gone into researching efficiency improvements for the industry. This Nursery Paper highlights some of the efficiency and mechanisation improvement projects that have been carried out for the nursery and garden industry. (TNP 2003#06)


Reed beds clean up nursery run-off water

01 May 2003 Government legislation in many parts of Australia now restricts the discharge of nutrient laden runoff water from any premises, including nurseries. Restrictions also exist in many areas on water usage, regardless of the source. Reed beds efficiently remove nutrients and organic matter from nursery runoff. This Nursery paper describes how they work and their potential in a nursery runoff recycling system. (TNP 2003#05)


Getting waterwise messages to your customers

01 April 2003 Publicity during the recent drought has made people aware that the typical home garden consumes between 60 to 70% of all water used in the household. While water restrictions stopped some people gardening altogether, others became more thoughtful about gardening styles and practices. This Nursery Paper contains many of the useful waterwise messages used by water authorities and the gardening media during the drought. These messages for our customers should not be dumped along with the first showers. (TNP 2003#04)


Nutrient Charting

01 March 2003 Nutrient charting is a powerful tool for managing the nutrition of nursery crops. It can be used to anticipate deficiencies and toxicities so that they can be corrected before they become chronic, check on the adequacy of a fertilizer program and guide the development of a new one and indicate when a crop needs top dressing. The procedures are quick, inexpensive and can be done on site. Interpretation of results is intuitive making the user less dependent on outside advice. (TNP 2003#03)


Growth of the nursery and garden industry

01 February 2003 This Nursery Paper details the major findings contained in the latest Australian garden market monitor report and provides businesses with a suggested list of actions based on these results. (TNP 2003#02)


The benefits of being professional accreditation

01 January 2003 This Nursery Paper provides an outline of the Nursery Industry Accreditation Scheme, Australia (NIASA) and the Australian Garden Centre Accreditation Scheme (AGCAS) and the Nursery & Garden Industry Professional Program (NGIPP) as well as detailing some of the benefits that businesses and individuals have already gained from them. (TNP 2003#01)


Importing plants its not that hard

01 December 2002 Thought you might import some plants, but not sure where to start? Importing plants is not difficult as long as you know the process that is involved. This Nursery Paper describes the process and details some helpful hints from the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service. (TNP 2002#16)


Managing and marketing new plants

01 December 2002 Ever thought that you have just discovered the next best plant sensation since the 'Iceberg' rose? If you did, would you know what to do? This Nursery Paper details how you can be sure that you actually have a new plant sensation and explores the various options for you to gain maximum financial benefit from your new discovery. (TNP 2002#15)


Biological controls for diseases of nursery plants

01 December 2002 Researchers and biotechnology companies around the world are developing new products containing biological organisms for the control of plant diseases. The challenge for industry is to integrate their use with other crop management practices to enable maximum benefits. This Nursery Paper reviews some of these developments and their potential for adoption by the Australian nursery industry. (TNP 2002#14)


Supplying crop nutrition through controlled release fertilisers

01 December 2002 This Nursery Paper highlights some useful information for optimising the performance of CRFs and should be read in conjunction with two other Nursery Papers; in this issue 'Water quality and nursery crop nutrition ', issue number 2002/11, and 'Supplying crop nutrition through fertigation ', issue number 2002/12. (TNP 2002#13)


Supplying crop nutrition through fertigation

01 December 2002 Fertigation is the process of supplying fertiliser or nutrients to crops in the irrigation water. Traditionally, fertigation was used mainly by seedling, punnet, potted colour and foliage crop producers. However, the opportunity to use fertigation in a greater variety of nursery crops is explored in this Nursery Paper. (TNP 2002#12)


Water quality and nursery crop nutrition

01 November 2002 Nursery crop nutrition can be significantly affected by the quality of irrigation water. As a result, particular attention must be paid to water quality and its interaction with applied fertilisers, especially fertigation. This Nursery Paper should be read in conjunction with the two accompanying Nursery Papers; 'Supplying crop nutrition through fertigation ', issue number 2002/12, and 'Supplying crop nutrition through controlled release fertilisers', issue number 2002/13. (TNP 2002#11)


Market research information for your business

01 October 2002 Combines the information from the autumn and spring 2001 consumer surveys conducted by Creative Dialogue for the nursery and garden industry. By marrying regional demographic information with the latest information gained from the study, new valuable, individual regional market intelligence reports are now available. (TNP 2002#10)


Making the internet work for you

01 September 2002 Explores how businesses in the nursery and garden industry can make the internet work for them by describing its uses and benefits, how it is linked to relationship marketing and by detailing strategies to use the internet. (TNP 2002#09)


The Australian garden market monitor

01 August 2002 Highlights some of the major findings contained in the report undertaken by RETAILworks, commissioned by Horticulture Australia Limited and NGIA. The complete report is available from Horticulture Australia. (TNP 2002#08)


Water retention efficiency of potting mixes

01 July 2002 Details the results of an Australia -wide survey on potting mixes and describes a simple procedure for nursery operators to do their own water retention efficiency testing. (TNP 2002#07)


Pesticide Management Diary CD launched

01 June 2002 The Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA) has developed a Pesticide Management Diary for recording pesticide applications in retail and production nurseries. A free copy will be sent to all NGIA members. This paper summaries how the diary works and how it can help members. (TNP 2002#06)


Disease awareness in the nursery and garden industry

01 May 2002 Independent research has been carried out to determine the attitudes of industry members towards plant disease management and diagnostic services. This paper summarises the results, particularly in regard to plant diseases such as Phytophthora and its management. (TNP 2002#05)


Horticultural industries working together through AusHort

01 April 2002 Because many of the research and development opportunities identified by researchers and/or development officers commonly affect multiple horticultural industries, Horticulture Australia and industry has put in place a way to facilitate multiple industry research and development (R and D) by forming the AusHort R and D committee. (TNP 2002#04)


Fire Ants and the nursery and garden industry

01 March 2002 This Nursery Paper explains the problem and summarises what the nursery and garden industry should know about Red Imported Fire Ants - an invasion into Australia with the potential to cause environmental disaster. (TNP 2002#03)


The Industry Advisory Committee what does it do?

01 February 2002 To enable the nursery and garden industry to have input into managing the funds collected from the nursery products levy and oversee the matching Commonwealth research and development funding arrangements, Horticulture Australia Limited set up an Industry Advisory Committee. This Nursery Paper explains how the Industry Advisory Committee operates and advises on the use of industry funds. (TNP 2002#02)


How the nursery and garden industry benefit from Plant Health Australia

01 January 2002 The role of Plant Health Australia is to identify, co-ordinate and pursue activities that will reduce the impact of pests, diseases and weeds on Australia's plant industries. This Nursery Paper details how Plant Health Australia operates and provides benefits to the nursery and garden industry. (TNP 2002#01)


The facts on hazardous plants

01 December 2001 Details the findings a study commissioned by the Horticulture Australia and NGIA entitled 'An analysis of hazardous plants in the Australian Nursery and Garden Industry', project NY98047. (TNP 2001#14)


Understanding your customers

01 December 2001 Regular research to determine where and what our customers spend their money on provides national figures on the gardening market and its trends and enables profiles of consumer types to be mapped and regional market intelligence reports produced. (TNP 2001#13)


Discovering alternatives to garden escapes

01 December 2001 The issue of invasive plants, often referred to as 'weeds', is a complex one. What the nursery and garden industry should do about this issue is equally, or even more, complex. This Nursery Paper details the approach being taken in a project funded in part by the federal government through the Natural Heritage Trust. (TNP 2001#12)


Flora for fauna plants for birds, bees, butterflies and profitability

01 November 2001 The November start-up of the Flora for Fauna campaign will create new marketing opportunities for both growers and retailers. This Nursery Paper focuses on the crucial role that growers can play in the program and looks at how the whole industry can capitalise on this federal government supported campaign. (TNP 2001#11)


Knowing your business costs

01 October 2001 While universal agreement on how to best determine a price for nursery products and services may never be achieved, there are some basic principles. In addition, two new costing courses are now available for production nurseries and for garden centres. (TNP 2001#10)


How big is your slice?

01 September 2001 Highlights from the 'Market Monitor' project report, undertaken by RETAILworks, which gathered information on the 8000 nation-wide nursery and garden industry businesses. (TNP 2001#09)


Understanding distribution channels and product categories

01 August 2001 Essential data from the Nursery Industry Statistics Projects 'Garden Industry Product Category' and 'Distribution Channel' structure. By familiarising yourself with these structures and by determining, which product categories and distribution channels you deal with, you will be better able to use industry data to help strategically plan your business. (TNP 2001#08)


Water fogging and misting systems are they a risk to human health?

01 May 2001 Dr David Douglas, a consultant in occupational and environmental health, reports that good quality water (that is treated town water, clean rain water or water that has been disinfected properly) will not contain bacteria, fungi or viruses that are harmful to either plants or humans. (TNP 2001#05)


Computer software for the nursery industry

01 March 2001 There are many different computer options available to nursery retailers and growers; adapt off-the-shelf general business management programs or contract the services of a programmer? This Nursery Paper outlines some of the important points to consider when evaluating software options and also outlines the features of several grower/retailer nursery software packages. (TNP 2001#03)


Pot-plants really do clean indoor air

01 February 2001 Recent research shows that indoor pot plants do improve air quality and how this occurs. As a result, clear claims can now be made and development can begin of varieties with an even better capacity for cleaning indoor air. (TNP 2001#02)


Childs play... Kids in The Nursery

01 December 2000 Turning your nursery into a child friendly space can reap immediate rewards for your business - parents will be more likely to want to spend time and money there if their children are catered for. (TNP 2000#14)


Fungus gnats common and damaging!

01 December 2000 Fungus gnats are a pest of production nurseries, hydroponic growers, media suppliers, and plant retailers throughout Australia. Heres a clear rundown on what they are and how to deal with them. (TNP 2000#13)


Sprinkler layout and selection for outdoor production areas

01 October 2000 A well-designed overhead sprinkler system will apply water evenly to all containers at an application rate that matches the absorption rate of your potting media. This paper provides some recommendations on sprinkler selection, based on sprinkler testing, for various layouts. (TNP 2000#10)


Greenlife Buyers Survey - quality and service worth $

01 September 2000 This report summarises the findings from national qualitative and survey research with buyers of greenlife products conducted by Mark Dignam & Associates in 1999. The project was commissioned by NGIA and funded by the industry levy. (TNP 2000#09)


Pricing for retail nurseries with that new tax

01 August 2000 There has been endless speculation and false predictions made about how prices are going to increase or decrease by a certain percentage. Here are some tips on how to price your products properly. (TNP 2000#08)


Plant pricing and the GST for growers

01 June 2000 Some valuable background information on what the GST will mean to you as a business and primary producer. Includes a warning for small growers and how to protect your profits by adjusting prices. (TNP 2000#06)


Reducing the labour costs of potting

01 April 2000 Research into the labour costs associated with the potting process, funded by the Nursery & Garden Industry Australia (NGIA), the Horticultural Research and Development Corporation (HRDC) and the QDPI, has revealed that many nurseries can reduce potting labour costs and increase profit margins by improving the efficiency of their potting production systems. (TNP 2000#04)


Hygiene and sanitation of working surfaces in the nursery

01 March 2000 A research project commissioned by NGIA and HRDC has defined the disinfection methods that will ensure clean working surfaces in the nursery and procedures to be used for NIASA accreditation. Here are the main points and tips. (TNP 2000#03)


Pot-in-pot container culture

01 February 2000 Discusses some of the many benefits of a relatively new nursery stock container production system from the USA, pot-in-pot (PIP) growing - a significant trend in the American nursery industry, and many growers throughout that country will continue to shift to this production method. (TNP 2000#02)


WFT insecticide management

01 January 2000 This guide provides information to assist in decision making for control of WFT. It includes notes on managing WFT, strategies for application of sprays and the selection of available chemicals approved by the NRA. (TNP 2000#01)


Beware of Chalara elegans black root rot

01 December 1999 Black root rot has been identified as a major disease problem in Australian nurseries since 1993. It affects a wide range of crops and is a particular problem in bedding plants. (TNP 1999#13)


Grower success stories on the path to industry development

01 December 1999 Who better to speak on the success that industry development can bring than the individual nurseries who are reaping the benefits? Here are some individual success stories from businesses, small and large, to wet your appetite. (TNP 1999#12)


The southern red mite, another new pest!

01 October 1999 Looks at the impact the exotic pest, southern red mite (SRM), may have in Australia. It was identified earlier this year from two nursery sites in the Sydney area and may have been in the Sydney area for at least 12 months. (TNP 1999#10)


WARNING! - Industry chemicals under review

01 September 1999 The National Registration Authority (NRA) is deciding if you will be allowed to continue using a number of important agricultural chemicals including chlorpyrifos (LORSBAN) and methiocarb (MESUROL). The ECRP program will impact on the availability of plant protection products for both commercial and home garden use. (TNP 1999#09)


International inter-firm comparisons yield interesting results

01 August 1999 The New Zealand Nursery and Garden Industry Association and the Nursery & Garden Industry Australia have agreed to share selected financial benchmarking information to enhance their respective industries' understanding of their management performance. Why you should continue to participate. (TNP 1999#08)


Ash Whitefly a new pest

01 July 1999 Ash whitefly Siphoninus phillyeae is a small white sap sucking insect occurring in temperate and Mediterranean climates. First recorded in Australia at Adelaide in 1998, it has since been found in Adelaide, Wagga Wagga, Dubbo, Griffith, Gundagai and Canberra. (TNP 1999#07)


More lies, damned lies and statistics

01 May 1999 Results of the 1996-97 census of the Australian nursery industry conducted for the NGIA and HRDC by the Australian Bureau of Statistics. This paper provides a further insight into the production/wholesale sector of the industry, building on the 'Lies, damned lies and statistics!', 1998/16 Nursery paper. (TNP 1999#05)


New flowering pot plants from Western NSW flora

01 April 1999 Information on some of the more outstanding new plants identified in Western NSW in the search for new flowering pot plants. These have previously been ignored, especially compared to those of Western Australia. (TNP 1999#04)


Greenhouse insect screens -making the right selection

01 January 1999 The surprising results of a three-year study conducted at North Carolina State University (USA) comparing the effectiveness of various screens for excluding whiteflies and thrips under summer ventilation conditions resembling those of a commercial greenhouse. (TNP 1999#01)


Handle potting mix safely

01 December 1998 Some mix manufacturers have identified their products as 'hazardous' so what does that mean for your business? (TNP 1998#14)


GrowSearch Australia

01 December 1998 Number One source of information from Australian and Overseas magazines. (TNP 1998#13)


Accreditation for business success

01 April 1998 The national accreditation scheme for growers and media manufacturers is the most successful industry run quality scheme in Australian horticulture and offers significant benefits. (TNP 1998#04)


Managing Western flower thrips

01 December 1997 Another unwelcome addition from overseas, this one not only causes damage by feeding on your plants but spreads virus infections and is resistant to most chemicals. (TNP 1997#12)


Keeping pests out with screening

01 July 1997 If you weren't interested in insect screening before, then the spread of Western Flower Thrips and Silverleaf Whitefly should've increased your interest! (TNP 1997#07)


Waterwork is working!

01 October 1996 Chris Rolfe won an Award of Merit from NGIA for his work on this project helping nursery operators improve their water management. (TNP 1996#10)


Reducing nutrient leaching from pots

01 September 1996 Includes world leading research on the ability of potting mixes to absorb water from irrigation and some ideas on reducing fertiliser and production losses. (TNP 1996#09)


Savings in nursery dispatch

01 March 1996 Dispatch costs vary between nurseries and can be reduced significantly to improve your profit margin. (TNP 1996#03)